acid
AB
A substance that boosts the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; pH <7
Activation energyThe minimum quantity of power required because that a chemistry reaction to occur
Amino acidAn organic molecule the serves as the monomers that proteins.

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AmphipathicA molecule that has both a hydrophilic an ar and a hydrophobic region.
AnionA negatively fee ion.
AtomThe smallest unit of matter that maintain the properties of an element
ATPadenosine triphosphate: releases cost-free energy once its phosphate bonds space hydrolyzed. This energy is offered to drive reactions in cells.
baseA substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration the a solution. (removes H+ ions or donates OH- ); pH >7
BufferA substance the minimizes transforms in pH when additional acids or bases are added to the solution.
Buffer systemA mechanism that consists of acid and also base creates in a solution and that minimizes transforms in pH
CarbohydrateA street (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
CatalystA chemistry agent that changes the rate of a reaction without gift consumed by the reaction.
CationAn ion v a hopeful charge developed by the lose of one or much more electrons.
CellulosePolysaccharide made of glucose molecules; forms cell walls in plants.
Chemical bondAn attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electron or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms
Chemical ElementA substance the cannot be damaged down to any kind of other substance.
Chemical energyEnergy stored in the chemical bonds the molecules; a kind of potential energy.
Chemical reactionThe making and also breaking of chemistry bonds leading to alters in the composition of matter.
Chemical Symbolan abbreviation or brief representation that a chemical element
CofactorAny nonprotein molecule or ion that is compelled for the suitable functioning of an enzyme
compoundtwo or much more atoms that are chemically combined
Concentration gradientA an ar along which the thickness of a chemistry substance rises or decreases.
covalent bondwhen atoms share electrons permitting the outermost shells the both atom to be filled; more powerful than ionic bonds
Decomposition reactions (catabolism)A metabolic pathway that releases energy by break down complex molecules to much easier molecules.
Dehydration synthetic reactionA chemical reaction in which two molecules come to be covalently external inspection to each other with the removed of a water molecule.
DenaturationProcess in i beg your pardon a protein loses its shape due to the disruption that weak chemistry bonds and interactions thereby coming to be biologically inactive.
diasaccharidemade of 2 sugar units
DissociationBreaking under of a compound right into its components.
DNAA double-stranded helical nucleic mountain molecule qualified of gift replicated and also determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
Double helixShape that the DNA molecule
ElectrolyteAn ionic compound that division apart in solution right into positive and an adverse ions.
electronnegatively fee subatomic particle discovered in electron ring
Electron shellAn energy level of electron at a characteristic mean distance native the cell nucleus of one atom.
ElectronegativityThe attraction the a provided atom because that the electron of a covalent bond.
Endergonic reactionA nonspontaneous chemistry reaction in which free energy is soaked up from the surroundings.
EnergyThe capacity to cause change especially come do work (to relocate matter versus an opposing force).
EnzymeA problem that speeds up chemical reactions in the body normally a protein
Exchange reactionsChemical reaction that is composed of both synthesis and also decomposition reactions
Exergonic reactionA spontaneous chemistry reaction in which over there is a net relax of cost-free energy.
Fatty acidsimple lipid offered to synthesize triglycerides and also phospholipids
Free radicalelectrically charged atom or molecule with an unpaired electron in it's outermost shell. Extremely reactive.
glucoseblood sugar
glycogenPolymer of glucose; features as a store of glucose molecule in liver and muscle cells.
HydrocarbonAn essential molecule consisting of carbon and also hydrogen
hydrogen bondA form of weak chemistry bond that is formed when the slightly confident hydrogen atom the a polar covalent link in one molecule is attractive to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in an additional molecule or in another an ar of the exact same molecule.
Hydrogen ionA solitary proton v a charge of 1+
HydrolysisA chemical reaction that division bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; features in disassembly that polymers come monomers.
hydrophilicwater loving (polar molecule. I.e. Salt)
hydrophobicwater fearing (non-polar molecule. I.e. Oil)
Hydroxide ionA water molecule that has actually lost a proton; OH-.
Inorganic compoundrelatively an easy compound the lacks carbon
ionan atom or molecule with a charge
ionic bondwhen one atom offers an electron (or more) to another atom. The resulting atoms become ions and are attractive to every other
IsomerOne of numerous compounds through the very same molecular formula yet different structures and therefore different properties.
isotopeatoms with various numbers that neutrons
Kinetic energyThe energy associated with the relative activity of objects. Moving matter have the right to perform job-related by imparting motion to various other matter.
Law of conservation of energyEnergy can be transferred and transformed yet it cannot be developed or destroyed.
LeukotrienesType that lipid the participates in allergic and inflammatory responses
lipidHydrophobic organic compound written of carbon hydrogen and oxygen (do not have actually 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen)
LipoproteinA protein external inspection to a lipid the transports fats and cholesterol in the blood
MacromoleculeA gigantic molecule created by the joining of smaller molecules generally by a dehydration reaction.
MassMeasure of the lot of matter in one object.
matterhas mass and also volume and is recycled by decomposers
MixtureCombination of facets or compound that space physically blended together yet not bound by chemistry bonds
monomersimple sugar monosaccharide
monosaccarideC6H12O6 Examples: glucose furustos galacose
neutron0 fee subatomic particle found in nucleus
Nitrogenous baseAdenine thymine cytosine or guanine.
Non-polar covalent bondA type of bond in which electron are common equally in between two atom of similar electronegativity.
Nucleic acidA polymer (polynucleotide) consists of countless nucleotide monomers; DNA or RNA
NucleotideThe building block of a nucleic acid consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and also one or much more phosphate groups.
Nucleus (of one atom)An atom's main core include protons and also neutrons
Octet ruleDescribes the propensity of atom to gain or shed electrons in order to obtain eight electron in their external shell
Organic compoundCarbon include compound hosted together by covalent bonds
Peptide bondBond the holds amino acids with each other in a protein. Developed by a deydration reaction
pHdescribes just how acidic or basic a systems is
PhospholipidsAmphipathic molecule that provides bilayers formin biological membranes
Polar covalent bondwhen electron are mutual unequally one atom is partially an unfavorable while the various other is partially positive.
polymercarbohydrates polysaccride
Polysaccharideany the a course of carbohydrates who molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
Potential energyenergy stored due to an object's place or arrangement
Primary protein structuresequence the amino acids
Producta chemistry substance created as a an outcome of a chemical reaction
Properties that watergreat solvent/dissolves garbage products/participates in chemical reactions/absorbs and also releases heat slowly/requires a lot of of warm to adjust to gas/good lubricant/makes up most volume of cells and also body fluids
Prostaglandinsbiologically energetic lipids which produce countless effects in the body including smooth muscle contractions inflammation and pain
Proteinscontains carbon hydrogen oxyge and nitrogen. Resource of energy. Essential by organization for repair and growth. Consisted of of amino acids.
protonpositively charged subatomic particle discovered in the nucleus
Proton acceptorA substance the takes up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts. Commonly referred to as a base.
Proton donorA substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts; an acid.

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Quaternary protein structuremade increase of an ext than 1 strand of polypeptide Very complicated (many enzymes space quaternary proteins)
radioactive isotopeshave stormy nuclei that malfunction over time emitting particles
Reactanta chemistry substance the is current at the begin of a chemical reaction
Reversible reactionschemical reactions room reversible; A + B <-----> AB
RNAribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays vital role in the manufacturing of proteins
SaltA compound made that minerals that in water dissolve and form electrolytes
Saturated fatty acida fatty acid whose carbon chain can not absorb any more hydrogen atoms
Secondary protein structureAlpha helices and beta sheets resulting from hydrogen bonding.
Solutesubstance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
SolutionA homogeneous mixture of 2 or much more substances
Solventa liquid substance qualified of dissolving various other substances
starchPolymer of glucose
steroidType that lipid made of 4 rings; supplied for hormones estrogent testosterone and cholesterol
Subatomic particlean electron proton or neutron; one of the three major particles of whoch atoms room composed
Substratethe problem acted top top by an enzyme or ferment
Synthesis reactions (anabolism)When 2 or an ext atoms ion or molecules integrate to because that a brand-new larger molecule; i.e. A+B-->AB; usually needs energy
Tertiary protein structureoverall form resulting indigenous interactions between side chain of the different amino acids
Triglyceride3 fat acids (chains the hydrocarbons) external inspection to a glycerol many fats are eaten and soaked up in this form
Unsaturated fatty acida fatty mountain whose carbon chain have the right to absorb added hydrogen atoms
Valencethe variety of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
What are the four main facets in life things?Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon
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