France established colonies in north America, the Caribbean, and India in the 17th century, and also while it lost most of its American holdings to Spain and great Britain before the end of the 18th century, it eventually expanded that Asian and African territories in the 19th century.

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Key Points

Competing with Spain, Portugal, the netherlands Republic, and later Britain, France began to establish nests in north America, the Caribbean, and India in the 17th century. Significant French exploration of phibìc America began under the dominion of Francis ns of France. In 1524, he sent Italian-born Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the an ar between Florida and Newfoundland for a course to the Pacific Ocean.In 1534, Francis sent out Jacques Cartier on the first of 3 voyages to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River. Cartier founded brand-new France and was the first European to take trip inland in north America.Cartier test to produce the an initial permanent European negotiation in north America at Cap-Rouge (Quebec City) in 1541, yet the negotiation was exit the following year. A number of other failure attempts to establish French negotiations in phibìc America adhered to throughout the rest of the 16th century.Prior to the facility of the 1663 can be fried Council, the territories of brand-new France were emerged as mercantile colonies. That was just after 1665 that France provided its American swarms the proper method to develop populace colonies comparable to the of the British. By the an initial decades the the 18th century, the French created and also controlled a variety of settlement nests in phibìc America.As the French realm in north America grew, the French additionally began to construct a smaller however more profitable empire in the West Indies.While the French fairly rapidly lost nearly all of its colonial gains in the Americas, their colonial expansion likewise covered territories in Africa and also Asia whereby France flourished to it is in a significant colonial power in the 19th century.

Key Terms

New FranceThe area colonized by France in north America during a duration beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence river by Jacques Cartier in 1534, and ending with the cession of brand-new France come Spain and an excellent Britain in 1763. In ~ its optimal in 1712, the territory expanded from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains, and also from Hudson Bay to the Gulf the Mexico, including all the good Lakes of north America.Sovereign CouncilA governing human body in new France. The acted as both supreme Court because that the swarm of brand-new France and as a policy making body, although, that is policy function diminished end time. Despite officially established in 1663 by King louis XIV, it was not developed whole cloth, yet rather developed from earlier governing bodies.mercantile coloniesColonies that sought to derive the preferably material advantage from the colony, because that the homeland, v a minimum of royal investment in the colony itself. The mercantilist ideological background at its structures was embodied in brand-new France v the establishment under imperial Charter that a variety of corporate trading monopolies.Carib ExpulsionThe French-led country cleansing that terminated most of the Carib population in 1660 from present-day Martinique. This complied with the French intrusion in 1635 and also its conquest of the world on the Caribbean island, which made it component of the French colonial empire.

 

The French in the brand-new World: new France

Competing through Spain, Portugal, the United provinces (the netherlands Republic), and also later Britain, France started to establish swarms in north America, the Caribbean, and also India in the 17th century. The French very first came to the new World as explorers, search a path to the Pacific Ocean and also wealth. Major French expedition of north America started under the dominance of Francis i of France. In 1524, Francis sent Italian-born Giovanni da Verrazzano to check out the region between Florida and Newfoundland for a course to the Pacific Ocean. Verrazzano offered the name Francesca and Nova Gallia to the land between new Spain and English Newfoundland, thus promoting French interests.

In 1534, Francis sent out Jacques Cartier on the first of 3 voyages to check out the coastline of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River. Cartier founded new France through planting a overcome on the shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The is believed to have actually accompanied Verrazzano to Nova Scotia and Brazil, and was the first European to travel inland in north America, explicate the Gulf the Saint Lawrence, i beg your pardon he named “The country of Canadas” after Iroquois names, and claiming what is currently Canada because that France.He test to develop the first permanent European settlement in phibìc America in ~ Cap-Rouge (Quebec City) in 1541 v 400 settlers, however the negotiation was exit the following year. A number of other fail attempts to establish French negotiation in phibìc America complied with throughout the rest of the 16th century.


Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel (1844), Library and Archives Canada (there room no known paintings that Cartier the were produced during his lifetime) In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and asserted the soil in the surname of King Francis I. It to be the first province of brand-new France. However, early French do the efforts at stable the an ar met with failure. 


 

Although, through alliances with various native American tribes, the French to be able to exert a loose control over lot of the phibìc American continent, locations of French settlement were generally restricted to the St. Lawrence river Valley. Before the facility of the 1663 can be fried Council, the territories of brand-new France were occurred as mercantile colonies. The was just after 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper way to develop populace colonies equivalent to the of the British. By the first decades that the 18th century, the French created and controlled such nests as Quebec, La Baye des Puants (present-day green Bay), Ville-Marie (Montreal), Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit (modern-day Detroit), or La Nouvelle Orléans (New Orleans) and Baton Rouge. However, there was reasonably little attention in manifest destiny in France, which focused on prominence within Europe, and for many of that history, new France was much behind the British north American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the british in 1713.

In 1699, French territorial cases in phibìc America increased still further, through the structure of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The considerable trading network transparent the an ar connected come Canada v the good Lakes, was preserved through a substantial system the fortifications, numerous of them focused in the Illinois Country and also in contemporary Arkansas.


Map of north America (1750): France (blue), britain (pink), and also Spain (orange)


New France was the area colonized by France in phibìc America during a period beginning with the expedition of the Saint Lawrence flow by Jacques Cartier in 1534, and ending v the cession of brand-new France to Spain and good Britain in 1763. In ~ its optimal in 1712, the territory of brand-new France prolonged from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains, and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf the Mexico, including all the great Lakes of phibìc America.


The West Indies

As the French realm in phibìc America grew, the French also began to construct a smaller but more rewarding empire in the West Indies. Negotiation along the south American shore in what is now French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was started on Saint Kitts in 1625. Colonies in Guadeloupe and also Martinique were established in 1635 and also on Saint Lucia in 1650. The food-producing plantations of these swarms were built and sustained v slavery, with the it is provided of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Regional resistance by the native peoples led to the Carib Expulsion of 1660.

France’s most vital Caribbean early american possession was established in 1664, when the nest of Saint-Domingue (today’s Haiti) was started on the western fifty percent of the Spanish island the Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue thrived to it is in the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern fifty percent of Hispaniola (today’s Dominican Republic) likewise came under French rule for a quick period, ~ being offered to France through Spain in 1795.

In the middle of the 18th century, a collection of early american conflicts started between France and Britain, which at some point resulted in the damage of many of the first French early american empire and also the near finish expulsion the France from the Americas.

Africa and also Asia

French colonial expansion wasn’t restricted to the new World. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to develop trading posts along the coastline in 1624. In 1664, the French eastern India firm was developed to compete for trade in the east. Through the degeneration of the footrest Empire, in 1830 the French seized Algiers, thus beginning the colonization of French phibìc Africa. Swarms were likewise established in India in Chandernagore (1673) and also Pondichéry in the south eastern (1674), and also later in ~ Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739). Finally, swarms were established in the Indian Ocean, ~ above the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Isle de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles (1756).

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While the French never ever rebuilt the American gains, their influence in Africa and Asia expanded significantly over the food of the 19th century.