l>Salix pulchra
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SPECIES: Salix pulchra
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Tealeaf willow at Happy Valley, north Slope, Alaska. Photograph © M.K. Raynolds.

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Introductory

SPECIES: Salix pulchraAUTHORSHIP and CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Salix pulchra. In: Fire effects Information System, . U.S. Department of Agriculture, woodland Service, Rocky mountain Research Station, Fire scientific researches Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.6294.org/database/feis/plants/shrub/salpul/all.html <>.ABBREVIATION : SALPULSYNONYMS : Salix planifolia Pursh subsp. Pulchra <1,5>SCS PLANT code : SAPLPCOMMON names : tealeaf willowdiamond willowdiamondleaf willowflatleaf willowflat-leaved willowpaneleaf willowthin red willowTAXONOMY : The at this time accepted clinical name of tealeaf pasture is Salixpulchra Cham. <40>. LIFE kind : Shrub6294.orgERAL LEGAL status : No unique statusOTHER status : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION and also OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix pulchraGENERAL distribution : Tealeaf willow grows throughout many of Alaska and the YukonTerritory. It likewise occurs in the northwestern Northwest Territories,and in northwestern brother Columbia. The is not uncovered south that latitude56 levels N in brothers Columbia <5>.ECOSYSTEMS : FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES44 AlpineSTATES : AK BC NT YTBLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC regions : NO-ENTRYKUCHLER tree ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRYSAF COVER types : 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - file birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 black spruce 254 black spruce - file birchSRM (RANGELAND) COVER types : NO-ENTRYHABITAT types AND PLANT areas : Tealeaf willow is a leading or codominant in countless sedge-shrubtundra areas mostly north of the Brooks variety in Alaska.Associated carices include aquatic sedge (Carex aquatilis), Bigelowsedge (C. Bigelowii), and shortstalk sedge (C. Microchaeta). Associatedwillows incorporate Richardson pasture (Salix lanata) and also netleaf willow (S.reticulata). It may likewise codominate shrubby tundra neighborhoods withdwarf birches (Betula spp.), numerous huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.),northern Labrador-tea (Ledum palustre), Richardson willow, Alaska bogwillow (S. Fuscescens), least willow (S. Rotundifolia), and also otherwillows (Salix spp.) <15,34>. In interior Alaska, it is frequently acomponent of seral willow communities on floodplain terraces, formingthickets through grayleaf willow (S. Glauca), Richardson willow, and alders(Alnus spp.) <34>.Published share listing tealeaf willow as a leading incommunity types (cts) space presented below:Area classification Authorityne AK basic veg. Cts Hanson 1953AK basic veg. Cts Viereck & Dyrness 1980

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraIMPORTANCE to LIVESTOCK and WILDLIFE : Tealeaf willow is vital moose browse in Alaska <23,26>. Itis also browsed by snowshoe hare and also Dall lamb <35>.Willows in basic are a preferred food and building material of beaver<27>. Willow shoots, catkins, leaves, and buds are consumed by numeroussmall mammals and also birds <14>. In Alaska, willows are vital foodof ptarmigan <35>.PALATABILITY : Tealeaf pasture is a wanted moose browse; however, the is lesspalatable 보다 Alaska willow (Salix alaxensis), sandbar willow (S.interior), and littletree pasture (S. Arbusculoides) <23>.NUTRITIONAL worth : Tealeaf pasture browse has moderate to reasonably high moisture,protein, and also caloric content. It gives a nutritious food it is provided forwintering moose <26>.COVER value : Tealeaf willow thickets administer cover because that wildlife. VALUE because that REHABILITATION that DISTURBED website : In Alaska, countless willow varieties are used for wildlife habitatrestoration, streambank protection, and reclamation of website disturbedby mining and also construction. Three basic methods of planting willowson disturbed sites in northern latitudes space <21,24,38>: (1) plantingstem cuttings, (2) transplanting containerized rooted cuttings orseedlings, and (3) planting majority of dormant branches.OTHER USES and VALUES : All willows develop salacin, which is carefully related chemically toaspirin. Indigenous Americans used various preparations native willows totreat this ache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff <22>.Native Americans also used flexible willow stems because that making baskets,bows, arrows, scoops, and also fish traps <18>. Aboriginal Alaskan peoplesate young tealeaf willow pipeline both raw and also cooked <35>. OTHER management CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL and ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraGENERAL BOTANICAL characteristics : Tealeaf willow is an upright, multiple-stemmed, deciduous shrubgenerally between 3 and 6 feet (0.9 and also 1.8 m) tall yet occasionally upto 15 feet (4.6 m) <35>. In exposed arctic and also alpine sites that mayassume a low, prostrate type <35>. It has smooth, gray bark. Male andfemale flowers happen on separate plants in 0.5- come 3-inch-long erectcatkins <1>. The fruit is a two-valved silky,pubescent capsule 0.3 inch(8 mm) lengthy <35>.RAUNKIAER LIFE kind : Phanerophyte REGENERATION procedures : Tealeaf willow"s major mode the reproduction is sexual. Itproduces an abundance of small, light-weight seeds. Like many willows,it probably starts seed production at an early age (between 2 and also 10years) <14>. At maturity, the fruit splits open, publication the seed.Each seed has actually a cottony down that aids in dispersal by wind and also water<6>. Seed are dispersed during the growing season and also remain viablefor only around 1 mainly <6>. The seeds contain far-ranging amounts ofchlorophyll so that photosynthesis generally occurs as soon as the seedis moistened. Germination occurs in ~ 24 hours of dispersal ~ above moistseedbeds <6>. In germination tests, 95 to 100 percent that seedsgerminated in ~ 1 to 3 days in ~ temperatures between 41 and also 77 degreesF (5-25 C) <7>. Exposed mineral soils administer the best seedbed.Germination is inhibited by litter <14>.
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Female catkin in seed. Photo courtesy of central Yukon species Inventory Project.
Vegetative reproduction: Tealeaf pasture sprouts from the root crownif aboveground stems are broken or damaged by cutting, flooding, orfire. Detached stem fragments kind adventitious root if lock remainmoist. Thus portions the stems will root naturally if buried in moistsoil <14>.SITE attributes : Tealeaf pasture grows in arctic and also alpine tundra, open up black andwhite spruce (Picea mariana, P. Glauca) woodlands, muskegs, and also sedgefens <1>. In open up spruce woodlands, tealeaf pasture trees usuallyoccur together scattered individuals yet become an ext dense along riparianareas <26,35>. In open up black spruce woodlands, tealeaf pasture oftenattains highest possible cover in areas with shallow, perched water tables on thesurface the permafrost <9>. In the mountains of internal Alaska, itoften forms comprehensive thickets over timberline <17>. It additionally formsextensive thickets in treeless bogs, and also at treeline in northern Alaska<35>. In arctic tundra it grows on flow banks, islands, riverterraces, and also on rojo uplands <4>.SUCCESSIONAL condition : Tealeaf willow is a component of stable, shrub-dominated tundracommunities <3,4>. The is intolerant that shade, and also uncommon in climaxboreal forests, uneven they remain fairly open. Foote <12> reportedtealeaf willow occurring in beforehand successional stages followingwildfire in black spruce forests. That veached its best abundanceabout 30 year after fire, however thereafter declined as it!was overtoppedby urees; by 56 years(after fire, it`was absent. Alojg the Chena Riverin inner Alaska, tealeaf`willow was not uncovered in suc#essionalterrace cOmmunities but grew just as scAttered individuals in climaxblack spruce-sphagnum moss was standing <29>. These orgasm stands providedfavorable sites for ve`leaf willow because they to be relative?y openand wet dwe to comprehensive Permafrost.SAASONAL development : Tealeaf pasture catkins show up in the early on spring before the leavesare fully expanded <35>. In Amaska, floWering typically occurs in Mayand June$ and seeds usually mature in late May, June, !nd Kuly <7,31>.Seeds are spread soon0after ripening; dispersal occurs later on withincreasing lapitude and elevation. Because that example, seeds room dispersedfrom late may to early June in the Fairbanks area yet are not disperseduntil at an early stage August along the Meade flow <7>.

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix pulchraFIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Tealeaf pasture is a fire-adapted species. Many plants sprout fromthe root crown adhering to top-kill by fire <10,37>. Viereck andSchandelmeier <36> report that also old, decadent willows sproutprolifically instantly after fire. The sprouting capability of willowsis apparently an ext vigorous and prolific 보다 that of birches or alders<36>. Tealeaf willow"s abundant, wind-dispersed seed colonizeburned areas <30>.FIRE power : discover fire regime info for the plant communities in i m sorry this varieties may occur by beginning the varieties name in the FEIS residence page under"Find Fire Regimes".POSTFIRE rebirth STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site enduring root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed carried by pets or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraIMMEDIATE FIRE result ON tree : Severe fires in white and also black spruce woodlands where tealeaf willowgrows together scattered individuals can kill willows by fully removingsoil necessary layers and also charring the roots <39>. Less severe fires onlytop-kill plants.DISCUSSION and QUALIFICATION the FIRE result : NO-ENTRYPLANT solution TO FIRE : Tealeaf pasture sprouts native the root crown adhering to most fires.Sprouts develop much more rapidly than seedlings do and also probably with over20 customs (50 cm) in height by the finish of the very first growing season <37>.

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DISCUSSION and QUALIFICATION the PLANT response : Tealeaf pasture is typical on current burns in lowland black color spruceforests in inner Alaska. One 11-year-old burn had around 4,700tealeaf, Alaska, and also grayleaf willow stems per acre (11,600/ha), andlesser amounts of spruce and also poplar <37>. Sampling countless burns inlowland black color spruce species in interior Alaska, Foote <12> observed thattealeaf willow averaged 295 stems per acre (728/ha) top top 1- to5-year-old burns, and 771 stems per acre (1,905/ha) ~ above 5- come 30-year-oldburns. Its density probably increases or remains continuous for approximately 30years after ~ a woodland fire, but thereafter decreases as young treesovertop that <12>.Since tealeaf willow seeds are spread in the summer and also remainviable because that only about one week, the season of a fire identify if itwill create during the very first or succeeding postfire years <30,36>.Fire severity affects the mode of tealeaf willow postfire recovery.Following irradiate fires the recovers quickly, sending up new shoots fromundamaged source crowns. Couple of if any type of seedlings develop following thistype of burn due to the fact that organic soil layers, which prevent seedlingestablishment, are only partially consumed <32>. Adhering to severefires, however, the main mode of recovery is seedling establishment.Severe fires that burn deep into organic soils death willows however exposemineral soils, which carry out excellent seedbeds. Ripe years ~ awildfire in a black spruce backwoods in interior Alaska, tealeafwillow cover reached 24 percent top top scarified firelines in ~ the burn,due to quick seedling establishment. In the key burn the 6-to8-inch-thick (15-20 cm) organic class was just partially burned. Here,tealeaf willow reestablished by sprouting, and also cover after ~ 9 yearswas just 3 percent <32>. Sheathe in nearby unburned locations was 2 percent.FIRE monitoring CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire can be offered to young jim decadent willows.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix pulchraREFERENCES : 1. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and also the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: nationwide Museums the Canada, nationwide Museum of organic Sciences. 279 p. <6167> 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and also amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and also A.W. Kuchler"s associations because that the eleven west states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Room of the Interior, office of land Management. 169 p. <434> 3. Bliss, L. C. 1988. Arctic tundra and also polar desert biome. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, wilhelm Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; brand-new York: Cambridge college Press: 1-32. <13877> 4. Bliss, L. C.; Cantlon, J. E. 1957. Succession on river alluvium in north Alaska. American Midland Naturalist. 58(2): 452-469. <14931> 5. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of british Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The brother Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. <6170> 6. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. Willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technological coordinator. Seed of woody plants in the joined States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service: 746-750. <5412> 7. Densmore, Roseann; Zasada, John. 1983. Particle dispersal and dormancy trends in north willows: ecological and evolutionary significance. Canadian newspaper of Botany. 61: 3207-3216. <5027> 8. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows the the Rocky mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. <6000> 9. Dyrness, C. T.; Grigal, D. F. 1979. Vegetation-soil relationships follow me a spruce woodland transect in internal Alaska. Canadian journal of Botany. 57: 2644-2656. <12488>10. Dyrness, C. T.; Norum, Rodney A. 1983. The impacts of experimental fires on black spruce woodland floors in internal Alaska. Canadian newspaper of forest Research. 13: 879-893. <7299>11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Woodland cover varieties of the united States and also Canada. Washington, DC: society of American Foresters. 148 p. <905>12. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics that plant neighborhoods after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, woodland Service, Pacific Northwest forest and variety Experiment Station. 108 p. <7080>13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; . 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of woodland and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service. 68 p. <998>14. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological attributes of selected varieties that complete with conifers in brothers Columbia: a literary works review. Land administration Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: ministry of Forests, details Services Branch. 180 p. <1055>15. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and also comparisons with communities in other arctic regions. Ecology. 34(1): 111-140. <9781>16. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae come Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: college of Washington Press. 597 p. <1166>17. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora the Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford college Press. 1008 p. <13403>18. Kovalchik, boy name L.; Hopkins, wilhelm E.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 1988. Significant indicator shrubs and herbs in riparian area on National forests of main Oregon. R6-ECOL-TP-005-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Room of Agriculture, forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 159 p. <8995>19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map that potential vegetation that the conterminous joined States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American geographical Society. 77 p. <1384>20. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal sequence following huge northern Rocky mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire research study Council fire and also land administration symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: tall Timbers research Station: 355-373. <1496>21. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; . 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Keep in mind 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Room of the Interior, bureau of land Management. 21 p. <6408>22. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs that the great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: college of Nevada Press. 342 p. <1702>23. Peek, J. M. 1974. A evaluation of moose food behavior studies in phibìc America. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 195-215. <7420>24. Platts, william S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; . 1987. Techniques for examining riparian habitats through applications come management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Room of Agriculture, forest Service, Intermountain research study Station. 177 p. <6171>25. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life creates of plants and statistical tree geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. <2843>26. Risenhoover, Kenneth L. 1989. Composition and quality of moose winter diets in interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 568-577. <14930>27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service. 1937. Selection plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. <2387>28. U.S. Room of Agriculture, floor Conservation Service. 1982. Nationwide list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. Perform of tree names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. <11573>29. Viereck, Leslie A. 1970. Forest sequence and floor development adjacent to the Chena flow in interior Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research. 2(1): 1-26. <12466>30. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga that Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. <7247>31. Viereck, Leslie A. 1979. Attributes of treeline plant neighborhoods in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 2: 228-238. <8251>32. Viereck, Leslie A. 1982. Results of fire and firelines on active layer thickness and soil temperatures in interior Alaska. In: Proceedings, 4th Canadian permafrost conference; 1981 march 2-6; Calgary, AB. The i get it J.E. Brown Memorial Volume. Ottawa, ON: nationwide Research board of directors of Canada: 123-135. <7303>33. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1979. Ecological effects the the Wickersham Dome Fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, woodland Service, Pacific Northwest woodland and variety Experiment Station. 71 p. <6392>34. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service, Pacific Northwest study Station. 278 p. <2431>35. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Room of Agriculture, woodland Service. 265 p. <6884>36. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Results of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literary works review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, bureau of soil Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. <7075>37. Wolff, Jerry O.; Zasada, man C. 1979. Moose habitat and also forest succession on the Tanana river floodplain and also Yukon-Tanana upland. In: Proceedings, phibìc American Moose Conference and Workshop No 15; ; Kenai, AK. . . 213-244. <6860>38. Wright, Stoney. 1989. Advancements in tree material and revegetation an innovation in Alaska. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a worldwide perspective: Proceedings the the conference; 1989 respectable 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta floor Conservation and also Reclamation Council: 107-116. <14361>39. Zasada, J. 1986. Herbal regeneration the trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in inner Alaska. In: van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; , eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. Brand-new York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. <2291>40. ITIS Database. 2004. Combined taxonomic details system, . Available: http://www.itis.usda.gov/index.html. <51776>FEIS home Page