Lead

facet 82 of routine table is Lead through atomic number 82, atomic load 207.2. Lead, symbol Pb, has actually a Face focused Cubic structure and SlateGray color. Lead is a post-transition metal element. Trivial surname of command is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Lead Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical facet in the carbon group with prize Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Command is a soft, malleable and also heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white shade after gift freshly cut, but it quickly tarnishes to a dull grayish shade when exposed come air.

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Lead Facts

Read key information and also facts around element Lead

name Lead
atomic Number 82
atomic Symbol Pb
Atomic weight 207.2
phase Solid
color SlateGray
Classification post-transition metal
team in routine Table 14
Group Name carbon household
duration in regular Table 6
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Melting point 327.46 °C
Boiling point 1749 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
CAS Number CAS7439-92-1

ar
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to find Lead on periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as variety of electrons. The atom number rises from left come right. Routine table start at top left ( atomic number 1) and ends in ~ bottom ideal (atomic number 118). Because of this you can directly look for atomic number 82 to find Lead on routine table.

Another method to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and duration number (row). To situate Lead on periodic table look for cross ar of team 14 and duration 6 in the modern-day periodic table.

discover Interactive routine Table come Understand and also Learn Cool fads

Table that Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare command with other elements

Lead History

The facet Lead was uncovered by Middle east in year 4000 BC in unknown ar . Lead obtained its name from English indigenous (plumbum in Latin)

Lead Presence: abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table listed below shows the variety of lead in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and also Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in universe 1×10-6%
variety in sun 1×10-6%
variety in Meteorites 1.4e-06
Abundance in Earth"s tardy 9.9e-06
diversity in oceans 3×10-9%
abundance in human beings 1.7e-06

Crystal framework of Lead

The heavy state framework of command is Face centered Cubic.

The crystal structure deserve to be explained in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats itself in 3 dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cabinet is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which space the lengths that the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
495.08 495.08 495.08 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms within the unit cell are described by the set of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured indigenous a referral lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are defined by the concept of an are groups. All feasible symmetric species of particles in three-dimensional space are defined by the 230 room groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral copies are thought about distinct.

space Group surname Fm_ 3m
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room Group Number 225
Crystal structure Face centered Cubic

Lead Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Lead atoms have actually 82 electrons and also the electronic shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4> with Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.


atomic Number 82
Number of electron (with no charge) 82
Number of Protons 82
Mass Number 207
Number that Neutrons 125
Shell framework (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
Electron configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell framework of command - electron per energy level


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Ground State electronic Configuration of command - neutral lead atom

The floor state digital configuration the Neutral lead atom is 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The portion of lead configuration the is indistinguishable to the noble gas the the coming before period, is abbreviated as . Because that atoms with plenty of electrons, this notation can become an extensive and therefore an abbreviated notation is used.This is necessary as the is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, electron in the outermost covering that identify the chemical properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration that neutral lead

Complete floor state electronic configuration for the command atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Atomic framework of Lead

Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 147 pm.

atomic Radius

154 pm (1.54 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.2716049383 cm3
Covalent Radius 147 afternoon (1.47 Å)
van der Waals Radius 202 pm
neutron Cross ar 0.171 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum the Lead

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Lead chemistry Properties: command Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity of command is 35.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.33
ElectronAffinity 35.1 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of command

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies of Lead

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 715.6
2 1450.5
3 3081.5
4 4083
5 6640

Lead physical Properties

Refer to below table for Lead physical Properties

density 11.34 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.2716049383 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 16 GPa
Shear Modulus 5.6 GPa
bulk Modulus 46 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44

Hardness of command - tests to measure of Hardness that Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 38.3 MPa

Lead electrical Properties

lead is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the electric properties of command

electric Conductivity 4.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 2.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting suggest 7.2

Lead Heat and Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 35 W/(m K)
Thermal growth 0.0000289 K-1

Lead Magnetic Properties

Magnetic kind Diamagnetic
Curie allude N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.11×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7e-05

Optical properties of Lead

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic nature of Lead

speed of Sound 1260 m/s

Lead thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for thermal properties that Lead

Melting allude 600.61 K (327.46 °C)
Boiling suggest 2022 K (1749 °C)
crucial Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude 7.2

Enthalpies of Lead

warmth of combination 4.77 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 178 kJ/mol
heat of combustion N/A

Lead isotope - atom Properties of command

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally arising Lead has 4 secure isotope - 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.


Isotope Isotope massive % abundance T fifty percent Decay setting
178Pb
179Pb
180Pb
181Pb
182Pb
183Pb
184Pb
185Pb
186Pb
187Pb
188Pb
189Pb
190Pb
191Pb
192Pb
193Pb
194Pb
195Pb
196Pb
197Pb
198Pb
199Pb
200Pb
201Pb
202Pb
203Pb
204Pb 1.4% steady N/A
205Pb
206Pb 24.1% secure N/A
207Pb 22.1% steady N/A
208Pb 52.4% stable N/A
209Pb
210Pb
211Pb
212Pb
213Pb
214Pb
215Pb

Regulatory and Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-92-1
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000
period Hazard class N/A
period Numbers 3077
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA dangers N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of unique identifiers to search the facet in various chemical registry databases

Database identifier number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts service (CAS) CAS7439-92-1
CID Number CID5352425
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000

Compare Lead through all Group 14 elements

lead vs Carbon lead vs Silicon lead vs Germanium command vs Tin lead vs Flerovium

Compare Lead v all post-transition metal elements

command vs Aluminium command vs Gallium lead vs Indium command vs Tin command vs Thallium command vs Bismuth lead vs Nihonium lead vs Flerovium command vs Moscovium command vs Livermorium