Identify exactly how to view conventional Reduction Potentials native the perspective of viable reducing and also oxidizing agents in redox reactions.

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We deserve to measure the traditional potentials because that a wide variety of 6294.orgical substances, several of which are provided in Table P2. This data enable us to to compare the oxidative and also reductive staminas of a range of substances. The half-reaction because that the traditional hydrogen electrode (SHE) lies more than halfway down the perform in Table (PageIndex1). Every reactants the lie listed below the SHE in the table room stronger oxidants than H+, and all those that lie over the SHE are weaker. The the strongest oxidant in the table is F2, with a traditional electrode potential of 2.87 V. This high worth is constant with the high electronegativity that fluorine and tells united state that fluorine has a stronger tendency to accept electrons (it is a stronger oxidant) than any other element.

Table (PageIndex1): traditional Potentials because that Selected reduction Half-Reactions at 25°C Half-Reaction E° (V)
Li+(aq) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Li(s) –3.040
Be2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Be(s) –1.99
Al3+(aq) + 3e− ( ightleftharpoons) Al(s) –1.676
Zn2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Zn(s) –0.7618
Ag2S(s) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2Ag(s) + S2−(aq) –0.71
Fe2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Fe(s) –0.44
Cr3+(aq) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Cr2+(aq) –0.424
Cd2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Cd(s) –0.4030
PbSO4(s) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Pb(s) + SO42−(aq) –0.356
Ni2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Ni(s) –0.257
2SO42−(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) S2O62−(aq) + 2H2O(l) –0.25
Sn2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Sn(s) −0.14
2H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) H2(g) 0.00
Sn4+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Sn2+(aq) 0.154
Cu2+(aq) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Cu+(aq) 0.159
AgCl(s) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Ag(s) + Cl−(aq) 0.2223
Cu2+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) Cu(s) 0.3419
O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e− ( ightleftharpoons) 4OH−(aq) 0.401
H2SO3(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 4e− ( ightleftharpoons) S(s) + 3H2O(l) 0.45
I2(s) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2I−(aq) 0.5355
MnO42−(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) MnO2(s) + 4OH−(aq) 0.60
O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) H2O2(aq) 0.695
H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e− ( ightleftharpoons) Se(s) + 3H2O(l) 0.74
Fe3+(aq) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Fe2+(aq) 0.771
Ag+(aq) + e− ( ightleftharpoons) Ag(s) 0.7996
NO3−(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons)​ HNO2(aq) + H2O(l) 0.94
Br2(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2Br−(aq) 1.087
MnO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons)​ Mn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 1.23
O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2H2O(l) 1.229
Cr2O72−(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) 1.36
Cl2(g) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) 2Cl−(aq) 1.396
(Ce^4+(aq) + e^− ightleftharpoons Ce^3+(aq)) 1.61
PbO2(s) + HSO4−(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons) PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) 1.690
H2O2(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e− ( ightleftharpoons)​ 2H2O(l) 1.763
F2(g) + 2e−( ightleftharpoons) 2F−(aq) 2.87

Not every oxidizers and reducers are developed equal. The traditional reduction potentials in Table (PageIndex1) have the right to be interpreted as a ranking of substances according to your oxidizing and also reducing power. Solid oxidizing agents are generally compounds with aspects in high oxidation says or with high electronegativity, which obtain electrons in the oxidization reaction (Figure (PageIndex1)). Examples of solid oxidizers encompass hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, and osmium tetroxide.

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To reduce agents are typically electropositive aspects such together hydrogen, lithium, sodium, iron, and also aluminum, which lose electrons in redox reactions. Hydrides (compounds the contain hydrogen in the officially -1 oxidation state), such as salt hydride, sodium borohydride and also lithium aluminum hydride, are often used as reducing agents in organic and also organometallic reactions.