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About 2 thirds of Viet Nam’s water resources originate native catchments in riparian countries. Viet Nam is the lower riparian nation in the Mekong and also Red Rivers and is vulnerable to water source decisions do in upstream countries. This susceptibility exacerbates the extremely variable seasonal (droughts in the dried season and flooding in the monsoons) and also geographical circulation of water (Fig 2). Despite the total abundant water resources, the dependency on upstream countries and also the uneven distribution have make Viet Nam’s ranking short in southeast Asia’s water ease of access per capita (4170 m³/person compared to median 4900 m³/person in south-east Asia and also 3300 m³/person in Asia)
|Fig 2. River run-off per region (bill. M³/year)|
Source: National Water ar profile, 2002.
Surface water: Rivers Viet Nam has actually a dense river network of i m sorry 2360 rivers have actually a size of an ext than 10 km. Eight out of these are large basins with a catchment area of 10,000 km² or much more (Table 6). The rivers flowing v Viet Nam include many international rivers. The full area in- and outside Viet Nam the all international catchments is close come 1.2 mill. Km², i m sorry is around 3 time the dimension of Viet Nam itself. The total yearly runoff is 835 bill. M³ but the shortage of water is aggravated in the 6-7 month dried season, as soon as the runoff is just 15 to 30% of this total.
|Table 6. Water resources in significant rivers|
|River basin||Catchment area||Total Volume|
|TotalAreain VN(km²)||% inViet Nam||Total(bill. M³)||Totalgeneratedin VN(bill. M³)||%generatedin VN|
|Ky Cung-Bang Giang||11220||94||8.9||7.3||82|
|Red River-Thai Binh||155000||55||137||80.3||59|
Of the worldwide rivers, the Mekong and also the Red rivers are the most important. The Mekong –the longest flow in south east Asia –drains indigenous China and enters the lower container at the usual Myanmar-Lao PDR-Thailand border point. The "lower basin" covers part 600,000 km² and also includes parts of four nations Lao PDR, Cambodia, Thailand and also Viet Nam. The Red River basin is the biggest in Viet Nam. The flow rises in Yunnan province in China and also flows v the northern part of the country into the Tonkin Gulf, forming an extensive delta.
Reservoirs: many dams and reservoirs in Viet Nam have actually been created for many purposes, consisting of flood control, irrigation, hydropower, water supply and other circulation management. Many are an ext than 20-30 years old. Over there are about 3600 reservoirs of various sizes, the which less than 15 percent are big or medium (capacity of over 1 mill. M³ or a height of much more than 10 meters)1. Siltation from deterioration of watersheds is causing a decline in reservoir volume – some with just 30% that the initial capacity remaining. (Table 7)
Note 1: Nguyen Dinh Trong, Workshop on integrated water management for reservoirs, Hanoi Oct 1994.
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|Table 7. Major reservoirs in Viet Nam|
|Reservoir||Catchment (km²)||Volume(bill. M³)||Irrigated Area (ha)||Hydro-power (MW)|
Lake: There room several major natural lakes in Viet Nam, one of those is Ba be lake with a surface ar area the 4.5 km² and a volume of 90 million m³. In addition, there are numerous other smaller lakes - consisting of urban lakes in Hanoi.
Inland Ecosystem: The freshwaters that Viet Nam space tropically rich in flora and fauna biodiversity including species of fish, shrimp, crab, snail, mussels, amphibians, insects and also plants. In various fresh water systems, over there are around totally 20 types of freshwater weeds; 1402 species of algae; 782 that invertebrates; 544 that fish species and 52 species of crabs. Distribution of fish varieties among the areas is gift in Fig 3.
|Fig 3. Fish varieties Distribution in Viet Nam|
Source: Data based on different sources compilled by Fishery research Institute I, 2003.
Only scarce quantitative data are available for inland aquatic ecosystems, and also the level of the destruction of freshwater biodiversity is quiet poorly known. However, over there are indications showing the many species are in danger of extinct or ending up being rare (Box 1). Provided in the Red publication 2002 (forthcoming) are 6 swamp waterfowl birds, 24 reptiles, 14 amphibian, 37 fish, 19 mollusk and also 1 insect freshwater species.
In a recent study by the World bank 268 aboriginal freshwater fish species have been recorded just from the Ca River container northwards, reflecting that a far-ranging part that the north Vietnamese fish fauna is mutual with southerly China5. This examine is particular concerned freshwater biodiversity in the context of the Viet Nam national Hydropower Study. The study reflects that changes in the hydrological routine of river solution due to building of dams because that irrigation and also hydropower causes loss of migrating routes for many varieties like the Clupanodon thrissa in the Red River and eels Anguilla spp. In assorted rivers in Viet Nam.
|Box 1. Decline in freshwater fisheries and also biodiversity|
| decline is seen in various reservoirs and also lakes in Viet Nam. In the Ba it is in lake fish types have been disappearing in ~ a rapid rate native 1998 come 2001. End this short period 20 types have disappeared, out of i m sorry 15 space Cypranidae. |
This is a continuation of a steady decline over decades. The fish captures have unable to do down because the 1960s:Period
|1961-62||Nguyen van Hao (1964)||38||85.0|
|1962-67||Mai Dinh Yen, Bui Lai (1969)||20||45.0|
|1975||Nguyen valve Hao (1975)||15||33.4|
|1993-97||Nguyen van Hao||11||24.5|
|2000||Nguyen Trong Hiep (2001)||7||15.0|
Surface Water Quality: In Viet Nam, data on surface ar water high quality is poor. However, minimal testing reveals rising pollution levels in downstream sections of the major rivers.
The upstream water high quality of most rivers remains good, if downstream pollution mostly from metropolitan areas and also industries affects the water top quality (Table 8).
|Table 8. Water high quality Up-and Downstream industries|
|Phu still||From Dien Hong come Viet Tri||10-24||15.3||0.014||0.1|
|Bai Bang document Plant||7.8-9||20-50||2.7||0.01||0.01|
|Dien Hong Pumping station||7||4.5|
|Thai Nguyen||Upstream the Thai Nguyen commercial Area||6.9||3.5||2.0||0.03||0.02|
|Sluice-gate of Hong valve Thu file Plant|| |
|BacGiang||Phu Lang Thuong Hydrological Station||7.3||3.2||2.0||0.02||0.01|
|Sluice-gate the Ha Bac Nitrogen Fertilizer tree||9.2||0.55||50.4||5.3||5.6|
|HaiPhong||An Kim Hai Canal||7.0||3.6||2.1||0.11||0.15|
|Sluice-gate that Chemical tree (Cam River)||7.3||9.2||4.5||1.4||0.5|
The nationwide Monitoring Network (NMN) consists 4 rivers running with the key urban areas of Viet Nam, Red river (Hanoi), camer River (Haiphong), Huong river (Hue) and also Saigon flow (HCM City). However, various other rivers room monitored as well in the miscellaneous regions (Table 9).
|Table 9. Water high quality in Vietnamese rivers|
|Region||river||Exceedance of class A|
|Red river Delta||Red River, Lao Cai||1.5-2/NH4|
|Red River, Dien and Hanoi||3.8/BOD5|
|Hong come Viet Tri||2/NH4|
|North central Coast||Thuong River||2.7/BOD52-3/BOD5|
|South central||Huong River||2.5/BOD51-2/BOD5|
|shore Northeast||Han River||1.4-2.6/NH4|
|Sai Gon flow||2-4/BOD5|
Trends indicate that the levels of two major pollution indicators, Ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) and Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD5) vary considerably and exceed nationwide water quality course A criter by number of fold (Fig 4 and Fig 5). The difficulties are worst throughout the dry season, as soon as the flows in the rivers space reduced.
|Fig 4. BOD levels in Vietnamese major rivers|
|Fig 5. NH4 levels in Vietnamese significant rivers|
Source: NEA, SOE reports 1997-2002.
Industrial and other pollution adds to the human waste from the population. About 70 industrial parks have been developed, and also with an ext than 1,000 hospitals nationwide part million cubic meters of untreated wastewater is discharged native these resources alone per day. According to MoNRE, there are about 4,000 enterprise discharging wastewater, of i beg your pardon 439 enterprises are the most serious, and also are required reallocated, closeup of the door or will need to adapt cleaner technologies and also treatment of your wastewater.
Rivers in Viet Nam"s city areas, especially major cities, room seriously polluted through untreated commercial wastewater. Surveys carried out by the institute of tropic Techniques and Environmental Protection show that the contents of contaminants in rivers in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Bac Giang, Hue, Da Nang, Quang Nam and Dong Nai, room much greater than permissible levels9.
Untreated industrial wastewater discharging right into rivers is the main source of the pollution. Follow to the institute, commercial parks (IPs) and also export processing zones (EPZs) in the Southern crucial Economic region discharge end 137,000 m³ of wastewater containing practically 93 loads of waste right into the Dong Nai, Thi Vai and also Saigon Rivers every day. Meanwhile, two out the 12 IPs and also EPZs in Ho Chi Minh City, three out the 17 in Dong Nai, two out of 13 in Binh Duong, and also none that the IPs and also EPZs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau have actually wastewater treatment facilities. According to environmentalists the Southern vital Economic Zone requirements investment that 5.7 trill. VND (380 mill. USD) in 2005 and 13 trill. VND (867 mill. USD) in 2010 to resolve environmental pollution.
Within cities, lakes, streams, and canals progressively serve as sinks for domestic sewage, municipal, and also industrial wastes. Many of the lakes in Hanoi are seriously polluted through high BOD levels. Similarly, 4 tiny rivers in Hanoi and 5 canals in HCM City have levels of execute as low as 0-2 mg/l, and also BOD levels together high as 50-200 mg/l (Table 10).
|Table 10. Water top quality in urban Rivers, Lakes, and also Canals|
|Kim Nguu (Hanoi)||150-220||50-140||0.5-1.0|
|to Lich (Hanoi)||60-350||14-120||0.5-7.9|
|Lakes Hai Phong||47-205||15-67||15-105||0.5-7.0|
|Sluice gates Hai Phong||60-390||80-500|
|Source: MoSTE- Documentation ~ above Red river Delta (1997-1998), Scientific and also technical Publisher (1998). |
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