Hydrogen bonds type when hydrogen atom covalently external inspection to nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F) in the type of covalent link such as ammonia (NH3), water (H2O) and hydrogen fluoride gas (HF). In this molecules, the hydrogen atoms perform not pull together strongly top top the shared electrons together the N, O, or F atoms. Therefore, the molecules space polar; the hydrogen atoms become positively charged and are able to form hydrogen bonds to an unfavorable ions or negative charged components of various other molecules (such together the N, O, and also F atoms that come to be negatively charged in this compounds). 
Hydrogen bonds room not true bonds like covalent binding or ionic bonds. Hydrogen bonds room attractions the electrostatic pressure caused by the difference in charge in between slightly confident hydrogen ions and also other, slightly an unfavorable ions. This attractions are lot weaker 보다 true ionic or covalent bonds, but they are solid enough to an outcome in some amazing properties. 
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Fig. 3-7:Hydrogen bonds shown as the dotted lines in between water molecules.

You are watching: The cohesiveness between water molecules is due largely to:

" title="" />In the instance of water, hydrogen bonds kind between bordering hydrogen and also oxygen atoms of surrounding water molecules. The attraction between individual water molecules create a bond known as a hydrogen bond. See Fig. 3-7.
A molecule of water has actually two hydrogen atoms. Both of these atoms can kind a hydrogen bond v oxygen atom of various water molecules. Every water molecule can be hydrogen bonded through up come three other water molecule (See Fig. 3-7). However, because hydrogen bonds space weaker than covalent bonds, in liquid water castle form, break, and reform easily. Thus, the exact number of hydrogen bonds created per molecule varies.
Molecules the pure substances are attracted to themselves. This sticking together of favor substances is referred to as cohesion. Depending on how attracted molecules of the same substance space to one another, the substance will certainly be much more or less cohesive. Hydrogen bonds cause water to it is in exceptionally attractive to each other. Therefore, water is very cohesive.
We see evidence of water’s cohesiveness every job – in water drops and also in streams of water. Our endure with water, however usually requires water poignant something else or gift acted upon by gravity. Come really obtain a feeling of water’s cohesiveness, scientists looked in ~ the habits of water in an are (see Fig. 3-8). In space, water is may be to type perfectly ring spheres since the attraction of water to itself pulls the water into the shape with the the very least amount of surface ar area compared to the volume – a sphere.
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Photo courtesy that NASA

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B.

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Photo courtesy the NASA

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Fig. 3-8: Water fall in space. (A
)European an are Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water balloon float in between him and the camera, mirroring his picture refracted, top top the International space Station. (B) A large water ball made top top a 5 centimeter diameter cable loop through U.S. Astronaut Dr. Pettit.
Adhesion is comparable to cohesion, but it entails unlike (i.e. Different) substances sticking together. Water is an extremely adhesive; it sticks fine to a variety of various substances. Water pole to various other things for the same factor it sticks to itself – due to the fact that it is polar so it is attractive to substances that have charges. 
Water adheres to many things— that sticks to plants, it sticks come dishes, and also it pole to her eyebrows once you sweat. In each of these instances water adheres to or wets something since of adhesion. This is why your hair continues to be wet after you shower. Molecule of water are actually sticking to your hair (Fig. 3-9). Adhesion also explains why floor is able to hold water (and form mud).
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Photo courtesy the Mo Riza

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Photo by Alyssa Gundersen

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Fig. 3-9: son with wet hair (a) and also enlarged photograph of individual drops the water top top wet hair (b).


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Fig. 3-11: Water piled on height of a penny showing surface tension led to by the cohesive property of water and hydrogen bonding

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Photo by Byron Inouye

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The cohesion the water creates surface stress where air and water meet. You observed this in activity 2 once you looked at the capacity of water to heap on height of a penny without spilling over (see Fig. 3-11).

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The hydrogen bonds between water molecules at the surface are analogous come the to members of a red rover team stop hands. Once playing red rover, team members heat up to form a chain to try and prevent someone native running through their joined hands (Fig. 3-12). The linked hands represent the hydrogen bonds between water molecule that deserve to prevent an object from breaking through.
Of course, a much faster or heavier human can more easily break v the hand bonds throughout a video game of red rover. Likewise a heavy object, or one the isn’t closely placed top top the surface ar of the water, can break the surface tension. Remember, because that example, just how the file clip required to be placed very closely on the water’s surface ar in order because that it to float (Activity 2).
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Fig. 3-13: Water molecule at the surface of a liquid demonstrating surface tension.

" title="" />Where air and also liquids accomplish there are unbalanced forces. Water molecules really near the surface space being pulled down and to the next by the solid cohesion the water come itself and also the solid adhesion of water come the surface ar it is touching. In contrast, the air pulling increase acts as an extremely small force top top the water’s surface. The result is a net force of attraction between water molecule a really flat, thin sheet of molecule at the surface ar (see Fig. 3-13).
Because that hydrogen bonding, water deserve to actually assistance objects that are much more dense 보다 it is. Water molecules stick come one one more on the surface, which prevents the objects resting on the surface from sinking. This is why water striders and also other insects deserve to “walk” top top water! the is also what permitted you come float a document clip on water and also the reason why a ship flop turn off the high dive right into a swimming pool of water is painful. Watch Fig. 3-14.
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3.14A. A water strider

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Photo courtesy that Alexander Yurusov

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3.14B. A paperclip floating top top water

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Photo by Byron Inouye

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3.14C. A belly flop pre-landing

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Photo courtesy of sarah Martin

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Fig. 3-15:Rulers grounding together.

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Photo through Byron Inouye

" />In activity 2, friend tried come stick 2 rulers together using a thin film of water between the rulers. Water acted prefer glue, and also you to be able to use one leader to elevator the other ruler using the adhesiveness of water (see Fig. 3-15). This to be a an outcome of both water-water cohesion and water-ruler adhesion. 
In fact, due to the fact that liquid water is so great at sticking to itself and also to various other substances, it deserve to rise increase a surface versus the force of gravity! We call this climbing propensity of water capillarity (also dubbed capillary action). You observed capillarity in task 2 as soon as you inserted glass pipe in water. 
Capillarity starts as soon as the water molecule nearest the wall surface of the tube room attracted to the tube an ext strongly than to various other water molecules. The water molecule nearest the glass wall of the tube increase up the side (adhesion), dragging various other water molecules with them (cohesion). Water level in the pipe rises till the downward force of heaviness becomes equal to 보다 the adhesion and also cohesion that water. 
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Fig. 3-16: Capillarity in different sized glass tubes.

" title="" />In a small tube, the molecule at the edges have fewer various other water molecules to traction up the tube 보다 in a huge tube. Therefore, water have the right to rise greater in a narrow tube 보다 in a broader tube (see Fig. 3-16). Capillarity happens normally in soils, fabric, and wherever there are small spaces the liquids can move through.

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