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The geographically informed person must know that physical solution create, maintain, and also modify the attributes that constitute earth’s surface. The physical environment provides the essential background for every human task on Earth.

You are watching: The geological processes that shape earth’s features today

Therefore, standard 7 has these themes: contents of earth’s Physical Systems, Earth-Sun Relationships, and also Physical Processes.

There are 4 physical systems: the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere, and the lithosphere. These constitute the crucial units of the planet’s physics systems. Recognizing the interactions within and among these four components offers insights top top how earth serves together the home of every living things—plants, animals, and humans.

Almost every one of Earth’s energy originates from the Sun. The synchronized Earth-Sun relationships are vital for the planet to be habitable and capable of supporting life as we understand it. Earth’s place relative to the sunlight affects events and also conditions in every part of the world. The quantity of solar power a location receives counts on the cyclically transforming angles that the Sun’s rays. The seasons an outcome from the tilt that Earth and also its revolution around the Sun causing variable heating patterns, and thus significantly influences climate and also weather and also human activity.

The physical procedures on earth create constant change. This processes—including motion in the tectonic key in the crust, wind and also water erosion, and deposition—shape attributes on earth surface.

Understanding how physical systems work can influence the options people make around where lock live, the varieties of buildings they construct, the travel networks lock develop, and how they normally conduct their lives. Offered the unsure trajectory and also effects of global climate change, knowledge around the components that impact weather and also climate is essential for both an individual and government decision-making. Global climate change is a windy policy concern that should be handle by governments, causing actions that recognize the health, safety, and also economic health of people across the world. Reasoned and also responsible politics decisions need to derive from a clear expertise of the interactions amongst Earth’s physics systems, and also the processes developing them.

Students must know the impacts of physical solution on earth surface. Expertise these themes enables students come see exactly how the an altering physical environment is the stage for all person activity.


1. There space four components of Earth"s physical systems (the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and also lithosphere)

Therefore, the student is maybe to:

A. Identify qualities of Earth"s different physical systems, as exemplified by being able to

Identify different features of physical solution in photographs (e.g., sky, clouds, plants, soil, oceans, lakes, mountains).Identify instances of water functions on Earth"s surface that consist of the hydrosphere (e.g., oceans, rivers, lakes, water vapor, floor water, different types of precipitation).Identify instances of terrain on Earth"s surface ar (e.g., mountains, volcanoes, valleys, plains). Earth-Sun relationships

2. Earth-Sun relationships influence conditions on Earth

Therefore, the college student is may be to:

A. Explain how Earth’s place relative come the sunlight affects conditions on Earth, together exemplified by being able to

Describe the relationship between the bike of seasons and also months in the Northern and also Southern hemispheres.Describe the distinctions in seasons based on latitude (e.g., very first and critical frost in various locations, length of farming season, bird migra­tions).Describe the changes in everyday sunrise and sunset and also length of day­light hours by record the change in times end the expectancy of the institution year. Physical procedures

3. Physical processes shape functions on earth’s surface

Therefore, the student is maybe to:

A. Identify examples of physics processes, together exemplified by being able to

Identify various cycles in Earth’s equipment (e.g., water cycle, carbon cycle, wind or water erosion, weathering, deposition, mass wasting).Identify the components and relationships in the water cycle.Identify the components and relationships in the erosion cycle (e.g., water carving canyons, wind sculpting mesas, landslides, avalanches).

B. Define how physical procedures shape attributes on earth’s surface, together exemplified by being able to

Describe landforms by building 3-D physics models and orga­nize the models into groups developed by comparable processes.Describe the physical processes that shaped specific landform fea­tures using images of terrain such as canyons, mesas, and deltas.Describe how freeze–thaw procedures erode rock (e.g., potholes on neighborhood streets, rock slides in mountain regions).

1. The four materials of earth’s physical solution (the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere) are interdependent

Therefore, the student is may be to:

A. Identify and also describe fads in the environment that result from the communication of earth’s physical processes, as exemplified by being able to

Identify and describe the connections in between ocean circulation system and also climate (e.g., phibìc Atlantic Drift and also the soft climate of west Europe, the climatic effects of El Niño or La Niña).Identify and describe the patterns that an outcome from the connections in between climate and also vegetation (e.g., instances of trends of ecosys­tems and also biomes).Identify and also describe the trends of physical functions that result from erosion and also deposition (e.g., estuaries and deltas, canyons, al­luvial plains, sand dunes).

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B. Analyze and explain patterns of physical functions resulting native the interaction of earth physical processes, together exemplified by being able to

Analyze maps of tectonic plates come predict the ar of physical features (e.g., hill ranges, volcanoes, rift valleys).Analyze the pattern of glacial attributes as a result of glacial retreat (e.g., moraines, kettle lakes, cirques).Analyze and also explain components influencing precipitation patterns and predict where the fads will occur (e.g., convectional, orographic, frontal). Earth-Sun relationships

2. Earth-Sun relationship drives physical procedures that monitor an annual cycle and also create patterns on Earth

Therefore, the college student is maybe to:

A. Define how Earth-Sun relationships drive earth’s physical processes and create yearly patterns, as exemplified by being able to

Explain the events of weather phenomena in different loca­tions early to yearly changes in the Earth-Sun connection (e.g., hur­ricanes in the loss in subtropical areas, monsoon rainfall, tornadoes in the mid-latitudes during the spring and summer).Explain why the hrs of visible sunlight changes with periods (e.g., the equatorial region experiences approximately 12 hours of sunlight year ring while places in the Arctic and Antarctic circles differ from 0 to 24 hours of visible sunlight).Describe just how the edge of the Sun’s rays alters at different lati­tudes by glowing a light straight on the equator that a globe and also noting the change in the ar (on the tropic lines) and also angle of the direct rays as the tilted globe is moved to represent the different seasons. Physical procedures

3. Physical processes generate fads of features across Earth’s surface

Therefore, the college student is may be to:

A. Analyze and explain the trends that happen on Earth’s surface ar as a an outcome of physics processes, as exemplified by being able to

Explain the effects of sports in seasonal precipitation top top rivers or vegetation (e.g., lot of snowfall, speed floods, 100-year rain occasion on rivers, lakes, shorelines, forests).Explain how physical procedures related to plate tectonics kind is­lands (e.g., Hawaiian Islands) or boost the key of hills (e.g., Himalayan Mountains).Explain the effects of erosion procedures on landscape features over time (e.g., Chimney Rock, Devil’s Tower, grand Canyon, arches National Park).

1. The interaction of Earth"s physical equipment (the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere) differ across an are and time

Therefore, the student is maybe to:

A. Describe how the impacts of physical processes vary across regions that the world and also over time, together exemplified by being able to

Explain the transforming relationships among climate, vegetation, and landforms (e.g., desertification and soil degradation, glacial advances and retreats).Analyze and also explain the differential impacts on climate that the rela­tionship in between water and also wind at various latitudes (e.g., cold cur­rents influence the development of deserts in ~ 20 and 30 levels north and also south latitudes, the formation of hurricanes and tropical storms).Analyze and also explain the relationships between physical processes and also the location of land functions (e.g., flow valleys, canyons, deltas, glaciated lakes and moraines, limestone deposits, caves, alluvial fans, canyons).

B. Describe the methods in which earth’s physical processes are dynamic and also interactive, as exemplified by being able to

Explain how volcanic eruptions and forest fires change atmospheric conditions and disrupt the nitrogen and carbon cycles.Explain exactly how increasing surface temperatures result in melting ice sheets and rising sea levels.Construct a diagram depicting how El Niño and La Niña kind and just how these affect weather in different locations ~ above Earth. Earth-Sun relationships

2. Earth-Sun relationships room variable over long periods the time resulting in transforms in physics processes and patterns top top Earth

Therefore, the student is able to:

A. Define how variability in Earth-Sun relationships affect Earth’s physical processes over time, together exemplified by gift able to

Explain how cyclic transforms (e.g., precession or Milankovich cycle) in earth’s orbit room responsible for transforms in heating that result in climatic alters such together an ice age and also glaciation of earth’s surface.Describe the variability in climate over historical periods that time (e.g., over the last 1,500 years or during epochs such together the Pleistocene).Explain how changes in sea coral (including current observations and also fossil records) are as result of sea level increase or fall as a result of climate variability. Physical processes

3. Physics processes connect over time to shape certain places on earth’s surface

Therefore, the student is maybe to:

A. Analyze and also explain the outcomes of interactions of physical processes over time, together exemplified by being able to

Identify the landforms that make up much of Bangladesh and ex­plain the physical processes that make the country susceptible to river flooding, monsoon flooding, and also cyclonic storms.Analyze and explain the see of Iceland in terms of physical processes (e.g., volcanism, glaciation, key tectonics that the mid-At­lantic ridge).Compare and contrast the good Lakes of eastern Africa and the great Lakes of north America and also describe physical procedures that created each of these lake systems.