Author: Lorenzo Crumbie MBBS, BSc•Reviewer: Alexandra OsikaLast reviewed: October 05, 2021Reading time: 30 minutes


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knowledge heart valves anatomy is important in grasping the overall function of the heart. The heart is among the most essential organs in the body. The is responsible for propelling blood come every organ system, consisting of itself. Other short articles have debated at length the gun anatomy the the heart and also its 4 chambers. Special mention has additionally been made of the truth that the heart has a dual circuit the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flow parallel to each other.

You are watching: The pointed apex of the heart is oriented toward the:

The materials of the left and right next of the heart are isolated indigenous each other by the corresponding interatrial and interventricular septa. Similarly, blood is separated indigenous the atrial and ventricular parts of the heart by the atrioventricular septa. However, that is the heart valves that allow blood to happen from the atria right into the ventricles and from the ventricles into systemic or pulmonary circulatory systems.

crucial facts around the love valves
Tricuspid ideal atrioventricular valveThree cusps - anterior (anterosuperior), septal, and posterior (inferior)Associated with 4 papillary muscles - anterior, medial or septal, inferior, moderator band (septomarginal trabecula)Prevents blood from flowing from the ideal ventricle right into the ideal atrium
Mitral Left atrioventricular valveTwo cusps - anterior (aortic, greater, anteromedial or septal) and posterior (ventricular, mural, posterolateral, or smaller) Associated v posteromedial and anterolateral papillary musclesPrevents blood from flow from the left ventricle into the left atrium
Pulmonary appropriate semilunar valveThree semilunar cusps - anterior (non-adjacent), appropriate (right adjacent), and also left (left adjacent)No connected papillary muscles avoids backflow of blood from pulmonary circulation right into the ideal ventricle
Aortic Left semilunar valveThree semilunar cusps - appropriate coronary (anterior), left coronary (left posterior), and a non-coronary cusp (right posterior, non-adjacent)No associated papillary muscles prevents backflow that blood indigenous systemic circulation right into the left ventricle
Mnemonic Try Pulling My Aorta (stands for Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral, Aortic valves)
Histology Semilunar valve layers - ventricularis, spongiosa, and also fibrosa  Atrioventricular valve layers - atrialis, spongiosa, and fibrosa
Embryology fifth gestational weekFusion the endocardial cushions
heart sounds First heart sound (S1) - closure the the atrioventricular valves Second heart sound (S2) - closure of the semilunar valves Third love sound (S3) - fast ventricular filling; may be physiological Fourth heart sound (S4) - contraction of the atria against a stubborn ventricle; always pathological

The love valves space uniquely designed gateways that encourage the unidirectional flow of blood v the heart. They space attached to unique muscular appendages that assist to keep them stable. This article aims to discover the embryology and also gross anatomy the the heart valves. Added discussion about the love sounds and their connection to the standing of the valves (open or closed), disorders that influence the valves (valvulopathies or valvular love disease), and clinical check of the heart valves will additionally be included. 


Contents
Atrioventricular valvesSemilunar valvesAuscultation of heart sounds
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Atrioventricular valves

The mature heart is a muscular tube that is split into four chambers: two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). The flow of blood through the love is partly regulated by unidirectional valves the exist in between the atria and also ventricles. The valves in between each atrium and also ventricle are referred to as atrioventricular valves (right and also left). The 2 valves that regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles to the coronary, pulmonary, and also systemic circulation room the semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic). 

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love in situ discover study unit

The atrioventricular valves are regulated pathways that allow blood to circulation from the atria come the ventricles. Castle ensure that blood does not flow back into the atria throughout ventricular convulsion (the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle). There room two together valves, one situated between each atrium and the ipsilateral (on the exact same side) ventricle. The right atrioventricular valve is additionally known together the tricuspid valve, and also the left atrioventricular valve is also known together the mitral valve. Each valve facility is comprised of an orifice that is surrounded by a ring, two or three cusps that extend centrally come close the orifice, and also supporting structures well-known as chordae tendineae and also papillary muscles.

Right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve

The right atrioventricular valve, or tricuspid valve, is situated in between the right atrium and also right ventricle. Together the name suggests, it has actually three cusps or leaflets that are supported follow me the spare part of the valve. The leaflets are called for the margin to which they room attached. Hence, there room anterosuperior, septal, and inferior margins as fine as an in similar way named cusps. Keep in mind that the septal margin is nearby to the best fibrous trigone of the cardiac skeleton. Because that clarity, the appropriate fibrous trigone is consistent with the central fibrous human body (part of the cardiac skeleton). Other essential facts that must be detailed include:

There is a fibrous ring that creates the orifice the the valve; it has actually a circumference ranging in between 10 – 11 centimeter that varies in between males and also females. However, the spare part of the valve are nearly triangular.In the anatomical position, the valve is positioned around at a 45 degrees angle in the sagittal plane. The ventricular surface ar of the valve clues in the anterolateral direction come the left, toward the cardiac apex. 
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Superior leaflet of best atrioventricular valve
Cuspis remarkable valvae atrioventricularis dextrae
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Synonyms: Anterior leaflet of appropriate atrioventricular valve, Anterosuperior leaflet of appropriate atrioventricular valve, present more...

A leaflet or cusp is a fleshy estimate that occludes the valve orifice when apposed with adjacent leaflets, thus avoiding retrograde circulation of blood. While there is a preference for the ax leaflet in newer texts, it is regularly used interchangeably through the ax cusp. There are three cusps that the tricuspid valve that room attached along the margin because that which that is named. 

The anterior cusp (anterosuperior leaflet) is attached come the anterosuperior margin and also is the biggest of the 3 cusps. The septal cusp (septal leaflet) is attached to the septal margin and is the the smallest of the 3 cusps. That extends throughout both the muscular and also membranous septa. The posterior cusp (inferior leaflet) is attached come the inferior margin and also spans the anterosuperior and inferoseptal commissures.

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The texture of the cusps is graded indigenous the perimeter to the main edge. The basal zone is situated at the perimeter where the cusps space attached come the margins. This is the thickest component of the cusp, it is heavily vascularized and also innervated, and has a larger quantity the connective tissue. The translucent clear ar is much thinner 보다 the basal zone and also has tiny to no chordae tendineae inserted in this part of the valve. It is situated between the basal and rough zones. Finally, the rough zone is opaque, thick, and also irregular and is the most central zone of the leaflet. The part of the unstable zone of every cusp the is exposed come the atrium come into call with every other as soon as the valve is completely closed. The ventricular component of the rough zone of each cusp acts as the allude of attachment because that the chordae tendineae.