Polymers prefer rubber shrink ~ above heating as their molecule chains curl up, and water shrinks as soon as warmed from its freezing point to about 4°C. After that, though, the behaves normally, and expands on warming.

In contrast, so-called negative thermal growth (NTE) products never law themselves. Uncovered in 1959, they incorporate zirconium tungstate, whose bizarre crystal structure means that the keeps shrinking together it’s warmed from any type of temperature over absolute zero (-273°C) to end 770°C.

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Robert is a scientific research writer and also visiting professor of scientific research at Aston University. He likes maths, West finish musicals and also hamsters.


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