O2 is the molecule formula that oxygen, a famous diatomic molecule responsible because that the existence of flora and also fauna ~ above the earth. Together we recognize the nascent oxygen (O) is a extremely unstable atom, it exists in the dual atom state.

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The balance that oxygen is maintained due to the fact that it is exhaled by plants and also inhaled by human being beings and animals. Moreover, oxygen is also crucial part of assorted atmospheric cycles on the earth.

In enhancement to this, we likewise know O2 is the main component the the ozone layer i m sorry is existing in the stratosphere and also protects the planet from harmful radiations of the sun.

hν + O2 —> 2O

O2 + O. —> O3

O3 + O. —> 2O2

O3 + hν —-> O2 + O.

hν = solar radiation photolyzing oxygen molecule

Oxygen is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas that is usually purified with the aid of fractional distillation that the liquefied air. Also, oxygen in liquid and solid kind is pale blue in shade which changes to orange, black, or red at low temperature and an extremely high pressure.

Moreover, the oxygen molecule never records fire and also is no flammable gift a strong oxidizer. Together it is such crucial molecule, we have to study its molecular structure and bonding behavior. Through this let’s answer the question:

So, Is O2 ionic or covalent? O2 is a covalent molecule due to the fact that each oxygen atom needs two valence electrons to finish its octet. To fulfill this need, each oxygen atom shares two of its electrons v the various other oxygen creating a strong oxygen-oxygen dual shared covalent bond.

What are ionic and covalent bonds?

Ionic bond are developed when the valence electrons room donated by one atom come another. Whereas, covalent bond are created when the valence electrons space shared between the atom in stimulate to complete the octet and achieve a stable condition.

Here, the is vital to know that only a mutual covalent bond is formed in the molecule having two similar atoms.

The covalent bond is directional and also present in every three claims of matter – solid, liquid, and gas. Because of this, molecules having covalent bonds display properties that hybridization, molecular orbital diagram, and also polarity.

On the other hand, ionic bonds are non-directional because that which the properties shown by covalent molecules execute not hold any kind of validity. This is a significant reason why ionic bonding is only applicable to the solid-state.

Moreover, through this reality it is presumable the molecules through ionic bonds have actually a high melting suggest whereas those v covalent bonds have actually a low melting point.

Why oxygen is a covalent molecule?

The answer come this concern lies in the Lewis framework of the oxygen. To draw it, we require to recognize its electronic configuration first. The atomic number of the oxygen is 8 through which its digital configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4.

As we understand the ns shell demands 6 valence electrons to finish its shell, one oxygen atom requirements two valence electrons in total.

Here, that is crucial to understand that the lesser the variety of valence electron required, the higher will be the propensity to accept them, and vice versa.

In irradiate of the same, each oxygen atom will try to accept the valence electrons due to the fact that of which 2 oxygen atoms will certainly share the valence electron to finish their octet.

From the previously mentioned Lewis structure, that is clear the oxygen atoms space attached to one another with the help of a common covalent bond.


Moreover, the dual bond forming between two oxygen atoms is composed of one sigma bond and also one pi bond offering the security to the oxygen molecule.

Here, it is an important to know that the oxygen molecule has actually a short melting point which go not impact the sigma covalent bond yet the pi covalent bond.


Does the oxygen molecule have a polar or nonpolar covalent bond?

Polar covalent bonds space those wherein the difference in electronegativity values exists. This difference creates an all at once net dipole moment on the molecule whereby separation of electric charges occurs, making 2 separates positively and negatively charged ends.

Whereas, on the other hand, nonpolar molecule are exactly opposite wherein no distinction in electronegativity worths exists producing the network dipole moment zero.

With this, no separation of electric charges occurs and there exists the least pressure of attraction in between the atoms in comparison come the polar molecules.

By the previously mentioned definition, the oxygen molecule is nonpolar in nature because both the molecules within the atom space the same. This way there is no distinction in electronegativity values making the molecule nonpolar.

What factors affect covalent bonds?

The covalent link is created when the valence electrons space shared between the atoms mutually, in bespeak to type a molecule. There room various factors that impact the formation of the covalent bond between the atoms.

These deserve to be electron affinity, atomic size, ionization energy, and also electronegativity.

1. Electron affinity is usually the readjust in power when one atom benefit a valence electron. The higher the electron affinity, the greater will it is in the affinity of the atom to accept the electrons.

This is the reason why oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent as it accepts the valence electrons and reduces the other atom.

2. Ionization energy is an additional property that is responsible for the oxygen creating a covalent bond. This home is defined by the minimum quantity of energy needed to wake up the most available valence electron in order to initiate the shortcut formation.

To develop a solid covalent bond, both the participating atoms require to have high ionization energy which is the instance of the oxygen atom.

3. In alignment through this, atomic size is one more property that promotes the formation of a strong covalent bond. When it comes to forming covalent bonds between the 2 atoms, we need to uncover the covalent radius to number out how much the participating valence electron of both the atoms, are from one another.

In the case of forming a covalent radius for each atom, it will certainly be half of the distance in between the two nuclei. The is so due to the fact that the equal number of valence electrons room participating and also present in ~ an equal street from one another in addition to the equal force of attraction on the various other atom.

With this, the smaller the dimension of one atom, the much less reactive it will certainly be and also will be closer to the positively fee nucleus.

Due come this, that becomes difficult for the valence electrons to easily bond with other electrons preferring shared format, the is, covalent bond.

4. Last however not least, comes electronegativity which is the capability of an atom to entice shared pair the valence electrons in the direction of itself.

By definition, the is clear the electronegativity is directly proportional come the atomic size. In bespeak to form a covalent bond, the electronegativity worth of the participating atoms have to be high if the difference must be low which will make the molecule nonpolar.

Are all diatomic molecules covalently bonded?

The diatomic molecules deserve to be homonuclear or heteronuclear and also will be covalently bonded. In the situation of homonuclear molecules, the valence electrons will certainly be equally shared having actually zero electronegativity difference, creating a nonpolar covalent bond.

Whereas in the case of heteronuclear molecules, there will certainly be some electronegativity difference, so they will form a polar covalent bond.

Here, some human being can think salt chloride (NaCl) being a diatomic molecule is no covalently bonded. It is necessary to recognize that sodium chloride is formed because of ionization.

In general, ionic bonds execute not occur in the diatomic molecules together it is a web of ions developing the decision lattice. In the situation of sodium chloride, each ion of that is covered by six an ext ions which room oppositely charged forming the crystal lattice.


The oxygen molecule is covalently bonded wherein an equal variety of valence electron are common by both the atoms. It deserve to be studied very well through the help of the Lewis structure that says a twin covalent bond exists in between the oxygen atoms. The sigma shortcut of this double bond is responsible for providing a solid stable structure to the molecule.

Whereas, the weak or incongruent actions is greatly showed because of the bonding done by the pi bond. As a single oxygen atom needs two valence electrons to finish its octet, the is less complicated for the atom come donate 보다 accept.

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This is the factor why sharing of valence electrons occurs between the participating two oxygen atoms to develop one oxygen molecule.