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What is Mitosis?

In 1887, the German anatomy biologist, Water Fleming, coined the ax mitosis which comes from the Greek language and translates come “wrap thread” indigenous mitos and “act or process” indigenous the osis part of mitosis. This ax was based on the warped thread appearance the the chromatin of the cell nucleus in the first stages the mitosis. Now, what is mitosis as a process? Mitosis is the process in cell division by i beg your pardon the nucleus of the cabinet divides (in a multiple phase), providing rise come two the same daughter cells.

You are watching: What types of cells in your body undergo mitosis

Mitosis happens in all eukaryotic bio cells (plants, animals, and fungi). The is the process of cabinet renewal and also growth in a plant, animal or fungus. The is continuously emerging throughout our bodies; the is even happening while girlfriend are analysis this. Cells continuously die; this process is termed apoptosis (programmed cabinet death). Because that you to remain alive and completely functional, this cells have to be repetitively replaced. Mitosis is crucial to this process. Mitosis is the reason we deserve to grow, heal wounds, and also replace damaged cells.

Mitosis is likewise important in organisms which give birth asexually: this is the only means that this cells can reproduce. This is the one crucial process that sustains populations of asexual organisms. Mitosis enables for part organisms to main alternate life stages (asexual and also sexual, such as fungi).

The crucial to mitosis emerging is the visibility of a nucleus. Therefore, organisms without nuclei (prokaryotes) miss out ~ above this exceptional process.

Before Mitosis

Before mitosis begins, the chromosomes in the cell core of the cabinet undergo replication. This is due to the fact that mitosis produces two daughter cells identical to the parent cell; so the number of chromosomes in the parent and also daughter cells must be the same. Mitosis produces 2 diploid cell from one diploid cell. Thus, chromosome number must dual before mitosis occurs. Keep in mind; diploid describes the variety of chromosomes in a cell: haploid cells have actually one collection of chromosomes (n), as is found in a gamete (sex cell), whereas diploid cells have actually two sets of chromosomes (2n).

Overview the Mitosis

During mitosis, all chromosomes separate right into chromatids (the two halves that a chromosome). These chromatids room then be separate in an are before cell division, to kind the chromatic makeup of each daughter cell. Since there are double the variety of diploid chromosomes in the parental cell (2 X 2n = 4n), as soon as these chromosomes space separated into their chromatids and split into two groups, each team will have the same variety of chromatids, and also therefore chromosomes, as each other and also as the parental cell. The ingredient of this chromosomes will likewise be identical. Once the chromosomes are separated in space, cell department occurs to create two daughter cells. Thus, mitosis offers chromosome replication to produce two the same diploid daughter cells, which are genetically identical to the diploid parent cell. This way all her cells have identical DNA composition.

The Phases the Mitosis

The process of mitosis can be psychic boggling to understand fully; below we will shot to occupational through that systematically. An initial off, mitosis can be split into 5 phases: Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Some textbooks differ in the number of phases. In some instances they execute away v prometaphase and just keep the four fundamental phases.

What specifically happens in each phase that mitosis in pets may different to what wake up in plants. Nonetheless, every cells undergoing mitosis will in one way or an additional undergo each of the over mentioned phases.

You will must familiarize yourself v the following terms to completely understand the phases of mitosis explained below:

Cell furrow/cleavage furrow
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Image Source: Flickr
The indentation discovered in the cabinet membrane the a recently divided pet cell
Cell plateThe synthesized department of a plant cell laid across the metaphase plate. This later forms the middle lamella
CentrioleImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsAn organelle connected with spindle fiber production, located in the centrosome. These room only uncovered in pet cells
CentrosomeThe part of the cytoplasm which consists of the centrioles
Microtubules

 

Hollow protein tube which form spindle yarn (among other things)
Tubulin
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein which renders up microtubules
Kinetochore microtubules 

Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The microtubules which connect the centrosome come the kinetochore
KinetochorePlates of protein in ~ a chromosome’s centromere, to which spindle fibers attach during mitosis
Centromere
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The allude of constriction that a chromosome
Cohesin 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein which binds 2 sister chromatids
Cytokinesis
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
Division of the cytoplasm into two same parts
Equatorial plane/metaphase plate
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Image Source: Wikibooks.org
The midline that the cell follow me which chromosomes align throughout metaphase
Interphase
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The period between mitosis occurrences; the period between one telophase and the next prophase
Middle lamella
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The cell structure between surrounding plant cell walls
Nuclear envelope 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The dual membrane i beg your pardon encloses the nucleus
NucleolusThe center of rRNA production within the nucleus
Sister chromatids
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The two the same chromatids which kind a chromosome
Spindle fibersImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsA bundle that microtubules to run from one pole that the cabinet to another, follow me which chromosomes move

Now that the definitions are out of the means let us acquire started top top the nitty gritty the this process.

1. Prophase

This is the longest step of mitosis. Plenty of important events occur in this phase, the centrioles migrate, the spindle fibers are organized, the atom envelope disintegrates, the nucleolus also disintegrates, and the chromatin fibers condense (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: The major events emerging in the prophase stage image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Prophase in pet cells starts with the migration of two pairs the centrioles from just outside the nucleus, in the centrosome, to polar end of the cell. As soon as at polar ends of the cell, the centrioles promote the activity of microtubules native the cytoplasm into the spindle fibers. Plant and also fungi cells carry out not have actually centrioles; therefore, castle skip this step.

While this is occurring, the nuclear envelope and also nucleolus disintegrate, publication the chromatin within. The dyed condenses, and chromosomes become visible. The 2 chromatids consisting of each chromosome room identical and are known as sisters chromatids. These are held together by cohesin.

Think that this phase this way, every part of the cell that is associated in mitosis alters to prepare for the complete mitotic process. Because that example, in ~ the finish of mitosis the daughter cells need equal amounts of the same DNA, therefore there has to be a method of making certain that the right contents go to the appropriate cell. In various other words, there needs to be an insurance mechanism for making certain that one cabinet does not end up through two copies of the one chromosome if the various other cell ends up through zero copies of this chromosome. This is completed through the hard work of spindle fibers which traction the materials of the one daughter cabinet to the one side while the other “half” is pulled towards the opposite end. This way, chromosomes never obtain lost and also go to the not correct end. In short, things migrate to your rightful corners.

The existence of the atom envelope limits how much chromosomes, in particular, can go. So prior to the cabinet can think about pulling things apart and duplicating the contents, this obstacle need come be removed somehow. This is why the atom envelope disintegrates.

If you follow the logic over it have to be obvious why the other occasions occur. Review over the explanation presented listed below of the entire process and then go.

2. Prometaphase

Prometaphase is one intermediary stage in between prophase and metaphase, right here the cabinet is further prepared for metaphase (figure 2).

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Figure 2: The events of the prometaphase stage. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

The spindle fibers connect to the kinetochore of each chromosome, in ~ opposite political parties of the centromere. Every sister chromatid is attached to its spindle fibers. This spindle fibers are comprised of kinetochore microtubules. The chromosomes move to the equatorial aircraft (or metaphase plate), i m sorry is perpendicular to the spindle fibers.

Here the exact same logic as above applies; that is all about making sure one chromatid end up in one cell.

3. Metaphase

Metaphase describes the alignment the the chromosomes at the equatorial plate adhering to prometaphase.

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Figure 3: The alignment of chromosomes at metaphase. Picture Source: Wikimedia Commons

Each centromere is aligned through the equatorial plate while the chromosome arms expand towards the poles. Each sister chromatid (still join at this point) is top top a different side of the equatorial plate (figure 3).

4. Anaphase

The Anaphase stage is the shortest step of mitosis.

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Figure 4: sisters chromatids are pulled in the direction of opposite poles the the parent cell. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

During this phase, disjunction occurs, and also migration that sister chromatids away from each various other to the poles the the cabinet occurs, causing the formation of daughter chromosomes.

Molecular electric motors use ATP come shorten the spindle fibers attached to each sister chromatid. In therefore doing, the chromosomes are separation into two genetically identical sister chromatids, well-known as daughter chromosomes from this point. This occasion is well-known as disjunction. As the spindle yarn shorten further, the daughter chromosomes are drawn further apart until grouped at opposite end of the cell.

There is currently a diploid variety of chromosomes at each pole.

5. Telophase

Telophase is the final phase that mitosis. After ~ anaphase, 2 diploid set of chromosomes are situated at every pole the the cell. Cytokinesis climate occurs to separation the cell into two the same daughter cells.

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Figure 5: The parental cell constricts to form two daughter cells similar to every other and the parent cell. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

In pet cells, the cytoplasm is constricted to the point that the cabinet is split in two. This outcomes in a cell furrow. In plant cells, a cell plate is laid in ~ the position of the equatorial plane. This later on becomes the center lamella that the plant cell.

Following this, chromosomes space packed to come to be chromatin, a nuclear source reforms, and a atom envelope forms around the chromatin and nucleolus. The spindle yarn disappear, and the cell enters interphase.

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Figure 6: A simplified outline of mitosis. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Now that we have actually explored all the different stages go back reread and shot to factor each event. This will carry out you v the ability to answer any kind of questions about each and also every among these stages.

Why is Mitosis Important?

Mitosis is essential for three key reasons: development and development cell replacement and also asexual reproduction.

1. Advance and growth

After meiosis has created a gamete, and also this has actually fused with one more gamete to kind an embryo, the embryo grows using mitosis. This growth continues throughout an organism’s life, in plants, animals, and fungi. In this way, the initial chromosomal collection is preserved.

2. Cabinet replacement

This occurs once the initial cell is damaged or wounded. New cells are produced to change those that were damaged. Instances of this are the heal of a cut or a damaged bone. When old cell die, new ones replace them come ensure proceeding functionality.

3. Asexual reproduction

Single-celled biology and details multicellular organisms usage mitosis because that asexual reproduction. This includes reproduction through fragmentation, as in the case of planaria, and also reproduction through budding, as in the case of sea anemones. Numerous plants reproduce utilizing mitosis.

How is Mitosis various from Meiosis?

First, we require to recognize what meiosis is. Meiosis is the replication of cell that outcomes in every daughter cell core containing fifty percent of the parental cell’s chromosomes. Meiosis is used mostly for the manufacturing of gametes, i beg your pardon are integrated in sexual reproduction. Thus, the key difference between mitosis and also meiosis is that mitosis produce somatic (body) cells, which deserve to go on to become part of any kind of bodily tissue, vice versa, meiosis only produces germ (sex) cells. Organisms which give birth asexually cannot undergo meiosis, vice versa, all eukaryotic organisms undergo mitosis.

Mitosis and meiosis are comparable in that both have the right to only take place in eukaryotic bio cells. This is because prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus in ~ which to start the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Instead, prokaryotes replicate themselves making use of binary fission. Both mitosis and meiosis begin with DNA replication in the parent cell to develop four to adjust of chromosomes: in mitosis, these sets are split to type two diploid daughter cells, while in meiosis, these sets are separation to kind four haploid daughter cells. This is because cells undergo only one division in mitosis, conversely, they experience two departments in meiosis.

The table below summarizes the similarities and differences in between mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis

Meiosis

Similarities

Can only occur in eukaryotes
DNA replication occurs first
Production of daughter cells based upon parent cell’s genetic material
Means of cell replication in plants, animals, and also fungi

Differences

Starts together diploid; ends as diploidStarts as diploid; ends as haploid
Used for growth/healing/asexual reproductionUsed for sexual reproduction
1 nuclear division2 nuclear divisions
5 phases8 phases
Daughter cell the same to parent cellDaughter cabinet not similar to parent cell
Results in 2 daughter cellsResults in 4 daughter cells
Produces somatic cellsProduces germ cells
Occurs in asexual and also sexual organismsOccurs only in sexual organisms

Wrapping increase Biology and Mitosis

We now understand that mitosis is the procedure of asexual cabinet replication that is responsible for an organism’s development and growth, its cell replacement, and also, in specific organisms, asexual reproduction. Mitosis is, therefore, an integral component of eukaryotic bio functioning. Mitosis differs from meiosis in the meiosis is the manufacturing of gametes, or sex cells, i beg your pardon will enable for hereditary recombination in sex-related organisms. However, there is no mitosis, the embryos created will never prosper to end up being organisms. Mitosis is came before by DNA replication, to form two diploid set of chromosomes. Mitosis has 5 phases. The an initial stage is prophase, wherein the chromatic material is exit from the nucleus, and centromeres move to the poles that the cell. Prophase is adhered to by prometaphase, wherein the chromosomes move to align in ~ the equatorial airplane of the cell. The 3rd phase is metaphase, whereby the chromosomes are completely aligned in ~ the equatorial plane. Metaphase is complied with by anaphase, wherein the sister chromatids creating each chromosome room pulled personal to rally at the poles the the cell; and telophase, wherein cytokinesis develops two similar daughter cells, genetically identical to the parental cell. Complying with this, the cabinet enters interphase, the phase in between mitosis events.

Mitosis has given eukaryotic organisms the ability to regenerate cell as essential without to reduce the chromosome set while meiosis has permitted the opportunity of genetic recombination. Both are vital for the prevalence and continued survival of eukaryotic organisms.

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