1101 In westernAfrica, a couple of miles indigenous the Niger River, wherein the mosquitoes space not therefore badas they space closer come the river, a well has been dug and a camp produced forpeople commerce salt for gold and for slaves lugged northward top top the river. Thecamp is to end up being Timbuktu.

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1101 by the start of this new century,towns space becoming crucial part of life in Europe, although world thereare less than ten percent and also ninety percent and also rural. The towns arecenters that commerce, which enlightened feudal lords and also kings uncover in theirinterest, either of the two having actually granted the town charters. Where big landownersresist the increase of towns they find trouble frequently in the form of violencedirected against them.

1101 In Europe, nobility is tiny morethan family of warlords. Robert Curthose, battle each other of Normandy, has returned fromthe an initial Crusade, and he invades England in an effort to take the throne fromhis brother, Henry I.

1101 In southern France, troubadoursappear, resuming a legacy that began in the 500s when secular entertainerswere banished ~ above the urging that Christian bishops. The troubadours song of thelives and also the courts of noblemen.

1114 2 peasants in ~ Soissons are accusedof stop meetings external of the Church. A deep vat of water is blessed. Oneof the peasants, Clement, is bound up and also tossed into the tank, and also he floats,leading to the conclusion the the "holy water" has actually rejected him and also that heis thus guilty. ~ this, the various other peasant confesses. Two others areimprisoned v the two. Local civilization excited and also passionate around heresy breakinto the jail and also burn the four to death.

1116 The Chinese have started stitchingtogether publications of printed pages. They have actually been enjoy it prosperity. Poetryand art space flourishing. Yet China is weak militarily, a result in component of Confucianism,which constrain ideologically.

1117 enslavement is abolished in Iceland.

1119 for centuries – possibly as earlyas the 200s C.E. – a couple of Chinese have known around magnetic north, and now thefirst recorded use of a magnetic compass takes place.

1121 The roman Catholic Church is morebureaucratically arranged than it remained in previous centuries. Centuries beforeit had no difficulty with common human being believing in pagan natural magic, divine treesand springs, fairies and also the like, yet now the Church feels more threatenedin its role as arbiter of truth. Literacy has been rising. Translations of ancientGreeks room circulating. Principles are spreading with the rise in the movementof trade and also people in ~ Europe. The Church is currently concerned about heresy.The Concordat that Worms condemns the well-known lecturer and also writer, Peter Abelard.And later this year the uncle of Abelard's wife, Heloise, leads a group of menwho attack and also castrate Abelard.

1121 In much northwestern Africa, areligious movement among the Berber tribes, led through Abdallah ibn Tumart, takespower, overthrowing the Almoravids, who had been strictly interpreters that theKoran. Tumart founds the Almohad state, proclaiming self a promised messianicfigure, the Mahdi. An governmental structure is developed to enforcepiety. This consists of a goalkeeper of morals, the mizwar, whose duties includepunishing the individuals of alcohol and also destroying music instruments.

1122 A summit meeting between Holy roman Emperor Henry V and also and Pope Calixtus II handle the investiture issue between the two. The Church is to select who will be a bishop in ~ the holy Roman Empire, but the divine Roman Emperor is to have veto strength over this selection.

1125 China's emperor, Huizong, hasmade one alliance with the Jurchen of eastern Manchuria, againsta typical enemy, the Khitan empire. The Jurchen achieve what China, v itsmuch larger population, has actually failed to do: defeat the Khitan.

1126 complying with their success againstthe Khitan, the Jurchen rotate on China's emperor, Huizong. They overrun his capital,Kaifeng, and also take him and also around 3,000 rather away. Remnants the the track royalfamily flee southward, and also Huizong's ninth son continues the Song empire insouthern China, the dynasty there to be referred to as the southern Song.

1128 The Catholic Church sanctionsthe Knights Templar, the Jerusalem, to guard the road in between the east Mediterraneanport the Acre, held by the crusaders, and also the holy city the Jerusalem. The KnightsTemplar have actually grown from a few crusaders deemed to have actually been fierce warriors.They have taken vows (promises to God) of poverty and chastity.

1130 dryness in what sooner or later will becalled Arizona causes the Anasazi people to abandon the area.

1139 The Catholic Church forbids christians from making use of the crossbow against their other Christians. It stays okay to use versus Turks and also other Muslims.

1139 Portugal is forming. CountAfonso Henriques, 29, has actually been allied through discontented nobles in thenortheast edge of the Iberian Peninsula. He has been fighting the emperors ofLeón and also Castile, and he has defeated a tiny army belonging to his mommy andhas thrust her come León. He now defeats the Moors in battle and declareshis soil independent the Moorish rule.

1140 The very same year that the Universityof Bologna is founded, for the study of law, the board of directors of Sens condemns PeterAbelard for heresy, and also Abelard travels to Rome to defend himself.

1140 A couple of people in Europe are findingtrials by ordeal as indicators of God's referee to be inadequate procedures. The alternativeis testimony by person witnesses, and also some are interested in every little thing empiricalevidence deserve to be obtained. Meanwhile, a Camaldolese monk in central Italy, Gratian,has been trying to carry order to Church law. He is a believer in "natural law,"as to be the Romans – law he sees as built upon doing to others what one wantsdone come oneself. His works are considered the best collection top top law.

1143 in ~ the city the Cologne a crowd pullspeople accused of heresy native ecclesiastic prisons and also burns them at the stake.

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1143 The Church arranges the Treatyof Zamora in between Afonso Henriques and the King of Castile. The treaty placesthe soil of Afonso Henriques under the security of the Church and securesrecognition the his title, King the Portugal.

1144 A Muslim warlord in northern Mesopotamia,Imad al-Din Zangi, has actually been do the efforts to prolong his power versus other Muslims.Presenting himself as a champion that Islam he catches the weakest that the Latinizedcrusader states, Edessa, in northern Mesopotamia(or southern Asia Minor) – territory occupied by believer from the first Crusade.

1146 Normans have been connected inpiracy in the Mediterranean Sea. ~ above the coastline of north Africa lock seize Tripoli,which had been a base for Muslim pirates.

1147 The acquisition of Edessa through Zangiis seen in Europe together a move against Jerusalem, which is controlled by Europeans.The German emperor, Conrad II, and French monarch, luigi VII, command hundredsof thousands top top a crusade – the 2nd Crusade – to take back the Edessa because that Christendom.The crusade stimulates a response from the Seljuk Turks who fight the crusaders.Another group of crusaders sail to the Iberian Peninsula and help King Afonso'smove southward versus the Muslims at Lisbon. Afonso catches Lisbon, whichis to end up being the funding of Portugal.

1148 picking up ~ above the soul of theSecond Crusade, a Christian force from Jerusalem attacks the Muslim city ofDamascus – a former ally against Zangi. The Christian army besieges Damascus,which is to fail.

1149 In the 2nd Crusade come the MiddleEast numerous have passed away from famine and disease as well as injuries indigenous battle.Edessa remains under Muslim control. However those returning from the crusade bringback sugar, which part Europeans will use in location of honey.

1150 Koreans begin printing books usingmovable type. Society under China's Southern song is prospering. The SouthernSong have huge ships that bring goods to India's Malabar Coast and to theRed Sea, its crews using a magnetic compass.

1150 Troubadours space now renowned insouthern France. The university of Paris is founded.