Cells gain nutrients from their environment, but where carry out those nutrient come from? practically all organic product on planet has been created by cells that convert energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, dubbed photosynthesis, is crucial to the worldwide carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1).




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Figure 1:Photosynthetic tree synthesize carbon-based energy molecules native the power in sunlight. Consequently, they administer an abundance of energy for various other organisms.
Plants exist in a wide range of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy that L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte mirroring sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte reflecting unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes through terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte v leaves mirroring sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte reflecting leaves v circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with diminished leaves and also spherical synangia (three unify sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte v whorled branches, lessened leaves, and also a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte mirroring leaves and also terminal cone v seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger).
© 1993 Elsevier part A: Graham, L. E. Origin of floor plants. Brand-new York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1993. All rights reserved. Part B: courtesy the M. Feist, university of Montpellier. Parts C and D: courtesy the Andrew Drinnan, Univeristy of Melbourne, institution of Botany. Components E, F and J: Courtesy of wilhelm Burger, ar Museum, Chicago.

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Coleochaete orbicularis. Both the gametophyte and also the background space bright green. The gametophyte has actually an irregular one shape and a scalloped edge. It is split into countless box-like segments (cells), each v a visible, ring nucleus inside. Dashboard b reflects a Chara gametophyte. The organism has actually branching, tendril-like leaves getting to from a primary stalk. The environment-friendly leaves room punctuated through small, round, yellow structures. A green liverwort gametophyte, In panel c, is protruding native the soil. Its four primary stems each diverge right into two halves and also then branch again at their termini, so the each has a forked end. Panel d mirrors a hornwort gametophyte. Each eco-friendly stem resembles a single blade the grass. Panel e shows moss gametophytes v sporophytes protruding indigenous the ground. The gametophytes have tiny green leaves, and the sporophytes room thin, unbranched, brown stalks. Every sporophyte has actually a fluorescent orange, oviform capsule dubbed a sporangia perched on height of that is stalk. Panel f reflects six clubmoss sporophytes create from the ground. Part stand vertically the end of the soil, and some curve or have fallen horizontally. Castle have plenty of stiff, protruding, spine-like, eco-friendly leaves. The sporangia are little yellow balls in ~ the base of the leaves. Dashboard g shows fern sporophytes with numerous stems extended with small, elongated, symmetrical environment-friendly leaves. Dashboard h mirrors a whisk fern sporophyte v long, straight, green stems beaded v yellow, round synangia follow me their lengths. In dashboard i, a horsetail sporophyte is shown. It has a single long stem, which is surrounding by a skirt of eco-friendly leaves at its base and an elongated, yellow cone in ~ the top. In panel j, a huge Cycas seed plant sporophyte is shown. Long fronds emanate upwards indigenous the plant"s trunk, and in the center of them there is a large mass dubbed the cone." href="javascript:void(0)" onclick="callNewShowInformConceptAfterPublish("true","true","Y","/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/14667822/U1.cp4.1_389033ab.tif.2.jpg", "Photosynthetic tree synthesize carbon-based power molecules from the energy in sunlight. Consequently, they provide an diversity of energy for various other organisms.", "Figure 1", "Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and also sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy that L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy the M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte showing sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy the A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte mirroring unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy the A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte mirroring unbranched sporophytes through terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte through leaves mirroring sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte mirroring leaves v circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with reduced leaves and also spherical synangia (three fused sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, diminished leaves, and also a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte mirroring leaves and terminal cone through seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy that W. Burger).", "620", "http://www.elsevier.com/", "Ten photosynthetic plants are pictured in a series of photographs labeling a with j. Dashboard a is a photomicrograph of a gametophyte the a microscopic green alga referred to as Coleochaete orbicularis. Both the gametophyte and the background are bright green. The gametophyte has actually an irregular one shape and a scalloped edge. It is separated into many box-like segments (cells), each v a visible, ring nucleus inside. Panel b mirrors a Chara gametophyte. The organism has actually branching, tendril-like leaves getting to from a major stalk. The green leaves space punctuated through small, round, yellow structures. A green liverwort gametophyte, In panel c, is protruding indigenous the soil. Its four primary stems each diverge right into two halves and also then branch again at your termini, so the each has actually a forked end. Panel d mirrors a hornwort gametophyte. Each eco-friendly stem resembles a solitary blade of grass. Panel e reflects moss gametophytes v sporophytes protruding from the ground. The gametophytes have little green leaves, and the sporophytes are thin, unbranched, brown stalks. Each sporophyte has a fluorescent orange, oviform capsule called a sporangia perched on height of its stalk. Panel f reflects six clubmoss sporophytes create from the ground. Part stand vertically out of the soil, and also some curve or have actually fallen horizontally. Castle have plenty of stiff, protruding, spine-like, environment-friendly leaves. The sporangia are small yellow balls at the basic of the leaves. Panel g shows fern sporophytes with plenty of stems spanned with small, elongated, symmetrical green leaves. Dashboard h shows a whisk fern sporophyte with long, straight, environment-friendly stems beaded v yellow, round synangia follow me their lengths. In panel i, a horsetail sporophyte is shown. It has a single long stem, i beg your pardon is surrounded by a skirt of eco-friendly leaves in ~ its base and an elongated, yellow cone at the top. In dashboard j, a huge Cycas seed tree sporophyte is shown. Lengthy fronds emanate upwards native the plant"s trunk, and also in the center of them there is a large mass called the cone.")" class="inlineLinks">Figure Detail